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Concept: Hip fracture treatment


Hip fractures are a common source of acute pain amongst the frail elderly. One potential technique to adequately manage pain in this population is the femoral nerve block. The objective of this systematic review was to provide updated evidence for the use of femoral nerve blocks as a pain management technique for older hip fracture patients in the emergency department (ED). Data Sources Searches of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were conducted between December 2010 and May 2014. The reference list of a previous systematic review was also searched. Study Selection We included randomized control trials examining the use of femoral nerve blocks in the ED among older adults (65 years of age or older) with acute hip fracture. Data Extraction Among 93 citations reviewed, seven trials were included. Four studies employed a single femoral nerve block, while three studies employed continuous (catheter-placed) femoral blocks. All but one of the studies were found to have a high risk of bias. Data Synthesis All studies reported reductions in pain intensity with femoral nerve blocks. All but one study reported decreased rescue analgesia requirements. There were no adverse effects found to be associated with the femoral block procedure; rather, two studies found a decreased risk of adverse events such as respiratory and cardiac complications.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Randomized controlled trial, Pain, Hip fracture treatment


Hip fractures are very common in older adults and result in serious health consequences. Early mobilization post-surgical intervention for hip fractures is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity levels during an acute inpatient admission of patients after surgery for hip fracture.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Fracture, Surgery, Weight loss, Bone fractures, Hip fracture treatment


Hip fractures occur 1.6 million times each year worldwide, with substantial associated mortality and losses of independence. At present, anaesthesia care for hip fracture surgery varies widely within and between countries, with general anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia representing the 2 most common approaches. Limited randomised evidence exists regarding potential short-term or long-term differences in outcomes between patients receiving spinal or general anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery.

Concepts: Time, Osteoporosis, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Surgery, Anesthesia, General anaesthesia, Hip fracture treatment



This review focuses on the use of peripheral nerve blocks as preoperative analgesia, as postoperative analgesia, or as a supplement to general anesthesia for hip fracture surgery and tries to determine if they offer any benefit in terms of pain on movement at 30 minutes after block placement, acute confusional state, myocardial infarction/ischemia, pneumonia, mortality, time to first mobilization, and cost of analgesic.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Anesthesia, Opioid, Pain, Bone fractures, Hip fracture treatment


Many surgeons currently use long cephomedullary nails for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. The optimal indications for deploying distal interlocks are still debatable. This study examined the torsional biomechanical properties of 3-part intertrochanteric femur fractures in a cadaveric bone model using two different distal fixation strategies, an unlocked long cephalomedullary nail versus a dynamically locked nail. Our hypothesis is that a long cephalomedullary nail does not require distal locking fixation when used for treatment of a 3-part intertrochanteric fracture.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Fracture, Femur, Bone fractures, Hip fracture treatment


hip fracture is a common and serious condition associated with high mortality. This study aimed to identify pre-operative characteristics which are associated with an increased risk of mortality after hip fracture surgery.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Hip fracture, Meta-analysis, Hip fracture treatment


Background and purpose - The operative treatment of hip fractures in Norway has changed considerably during the last decade. We used data in the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register to investigate possible effects of these changes on reoperations and 1-year mortality. Patients and methods - 72,741 femoral neck (FFN) fractures and trochanteric fractures in patients 60 years or older were analyzed. The fractures were divided into 5 time periods (2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, 2013-2014). Cox regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted (age group, sex, and ASA class) relative risks (RRs) of reoperation and of 1-year mortality in the different time periods. Results - For undisplaced FFNs treatment with hemiarthroplasty increased from 2.1% to 9.7% during the study period. For displaced FFNs treatment with arthroplasty increased from 56% to 93%. The use of intramedullary nails increased from 9.1% to 26% for stable 2-fragment (AO/OTA A1) trochanteric fractures, from 15% to 33% for multifragment (AO/OTA A2) trochanteric fractures, and from 27% to 61% for intertrochanteric fractures (AO/OTA A3)/subtrochanteric fractures. Compared with the first time period the adjusted 1-year RR for reoperation was 0.43 (95% CI: 0.37-0.49) for displaced FFNs in the last time period. The adjusted 1-year mortality in the last time period was lower for all fractures (RR: 0.87 (0.83-0.91)), displaced FFNs (RR: 0.86 (0.80-0.93)), AO/OTA A1 trochanteric fractures (RR: 0.79 (0.71-0.88)), and AO/OTA A2 trochanteric fractures (RR: 0.87 (0.77-0.98)) when compared with the first study period. Interpretation - Hip fracture treatment in Norway has improved: The risk of reoperation and the 1-year mortality after displaced femoral neck fractures have decreased over a 10-year period. National registration is useful to monitor trends in treatment and outcomes after hip fractures.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Regression analysis, Bone, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Orthopedic surgery, Periodization, Hip fracture treatment


Evidence-based management can reduce deaths and suffering of older adults with hip fractures. This study investigates the evidence-practice gaps in hip fracture care in three major hospitals in Delhi, potential barriers and facilitators to improving care, and consequently, identifies contextually appropriate interventions for implementing best practice for management of older adults with hip fractures in India.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Fracture, Management, Bone fractures, Hip fracture treatment, Evidence-based management


To determine whether poor nutritional status can predict postoperative delirium in elderly adults undergoing hip fracture surgery.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Nutrition, Hip fracture, Middle age, Old age, Hip fracture treatment