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Concept: Hip bone


Many studies suggest that impairment of motor control is the mechanical component of the pathogenesis of painful disorders in the lumbo-sacral region; however, this theory is still unproven and the results and recommendations for intervention remain questionable. The need for a force to compress both innominate bones against the sacrum is the basis for treatment of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PGP). Therefore, it is advised to use a pelvic belt and do exercises to enhance contraction of the muscles which provide this compression. However, our clinical experience is that contraction of those muscles appears to be excessive in PGP. Therefore, in patients with long-lasting pregnancy-related posterior PGP, there is a need to investigate the contraction pattern of an important muscle that provides a compressive force, i.e. the transverse abdominal muscle (TrA), during a load transfer test, such as active straight leg raising (ASLR).

Concepts: Scientific method, Childbirth, Pelvis, Thigh, Sacrum, Pelvic girdle pain, Pelvimetry, Hip bone


The human pelvis has evolved over time into a remarkable structure, optimised into an intricate architecture that transfers the entire load of the upper body into the lower limbs, while also facilitating bipedal movement. The pelvic girdle is composed of two hip bones, os coxae, themselves each formed from the gradual fusion of the ischium, ilium and pubis bones. Unlike the development of the classical long bones, a complex timeline of events must occur in order for the pelvis to arise from the embryonic limb buds. An initial blastemal structure forms from the mesenchyme, with chondrification of this mass leading to the first recognisable elements of the pelvis. Primary ossification centres initiate in utero, followed post-natally by secondary ossification at a range of locations, with these processes not complete until adulthood. This cascade of events can vary between individuals, with recent evidence suggesting that fetal activity can affect the normal development of the pelvis. This review surveys the current literature on the ontogeny of the human pelvis. Anat Rec, 300:643-652, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Hip, Pelvis, Human anatomy, Acetabulum, Sacrum, Ilium, Ischium, Hip bone



Osteoporotic pelvic ring fractures are a rising problem for surgeons in industrialized countries. There is no evidence-based treatment strategy especially for lateral compression (LC) fractures involving the sacrum. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare outcome and survival rate of nonoperative and operative treatment strategies for lateral compression fractures.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Pelvis, Strategy, Sacrum, Chess, Pelvimetry, Strategy pattern, Hip bone


Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expanding osteolytic lesion. ABC represents 1% of all primary benign bone tumors, whereby 4-12% occur in the pelvis. The etiology of this disease remains vague. Aneurysmal bone cyst can exist either as primary bone lesion (70%) or as secondary lesion arising from another bone disorder (30%). Moreover, pelvic ABCs are characterized by their large size and high vascularity. We present a rare pediatric case with ABC involving the ischial region. A 5-year-old girl presented with left pelvic pain and limping for the past 6 months. Initial imaging showed an expansile lesion in the left ischium, and computed tomography guided biopsy showed giant cells in histopathology study with no evidence of metastasis. The patient underwent intraoperative frozen section followed by extensive intra-lesional bone excision. Bone curettage was pursued along with bone grafting. The case was successfully managed without postoperative complications after the 6-month follow-up period.

Concepts: Cancer, Anatomical pathology, Pelvis, Sacroiliac joint, Ilium, Pelvimetry, Ischium, Hip bone


This article describes a novel technique for en bloc resection of locally recurrent rectal cancer that invades the high sacral bone (above S3). The involved segment of the sacrum is mobilised with osteotomes during an initial posterior approach before an anterior abdominal phase where the segment of sacral bone is delivered with the specimen. This allows en bloc resection of the involved sacrum while preserving uninvolved distal and contralateral sacral bone and nerve roots. The goal is to obtain a clear bony margin and offer a chance of cure while improving functional outcomes by maintaining pelvic stability and minimising neurological deficit.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Pelvis, Abdomen, Sacrum, Pelvimetry, Hip bone


Treatment of Ewing sarcoma of the pelvic bones remains one of the most difficult tasks in the treatment of bone sarcomas. Whether surgery or radiation therapy is the best local treatment is still a matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to compare sacral and nonsacral sites with regard to the treatment and outcome of pelvic Ewing sarcomas.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Types of cancer, Pelvis, Connective tissue, Sacrum, Pelvimetry, Hip bone


Pelvic incidence is a position- and posture-independent parameter used to quantify sagittal balance of the spine, sacrum, pelvis and hips. Its functional consequences have been associated with a number of different pathologies of the spine. However, there exists considerable controversy over which demographic features contribute to the development of pelvic incidence.

Concepts: Biology, Hip, Pelvis, Human anatomy, Sacrum, Obturator internus muscle, Pelvimetry, Hip bone


Despite the importance of the human pelvis as a weight-bearing structure, there is a paucity of literature that discusses the development of the juvenile innominate from a biomechanical perspective. This study aims to add to the limited body of literature pertaining to this topic through the qualitative analysis of the gross architecture of the human ischium during the juvenile period. Macro-radiographs of 55 human ischia ranging from 28 intra-uterine weeks to 14 years of age were examined using intensity-gradient color mapping to highlight changes in gross structural morphology with increasing age. A clear pattern of maturation was observed in the juvenile ischium with increasing age. The acetabular component and ramus of the ischium consistently displayed low bone intensity in the postnatal skeletal material. Conversely the posterior body of the ischium, and in particular the ischial spine and lesser sciatic notch, exhibited increasing bone intensity which first arose at 1-2 years of age and became more expansive in older cohorts. The intensity patterns observed within the developing juvenile ischium are indicative of the potential factors influencing the maturation of this skeletal element. While the low intensity acetabular fossa indicates a lack of significant biomechanical interactions, the posterior increase in bone intensity may be related to the load-bearing nature of the posterior ischium. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Childbirth, Pelvis, Human anatomy, Acetabulum, Lesser sciatic foramen, Ilium, Ischium, Hip bone


Pelvic ring stability is maintained passively by both the osseous and the ligamentous apparatus. Therapeutic approaches focus mainly on fracture patterns, so ligaments are often neglected. When they rupture along with the bone after pelvic ring fractures, disrupting stability, ligaments need to be considered during reconstruction and rehabilitation. Our aim was to determine the influence of ligaments on open-book injury using two experimental models with body donors. Mechanisms of bone avulsion related to open-book injury were investigated. Open-book injuries were induced in human pelves and subsequently investigated by anatomical dissection and endoscopy. The findings were compared to CT and MRI scans of open-book injuries. Relevant structures were further analyzed using plastinated cross-sections of the posterior pelvic ring. A fragment of the distal sacrum was observed, related to open-book injury. Two ligaments were found to be responsible for this avulsion phenomenon: the caudal portion of the anterior sacroiliac ligament and another ligament running along the ventral surface of the third sacral vertebra. The sacral fragment remained attached to the coxal bone by this second ligament after open-book injury. These results were validated using plastination and the structures were identified. Pelvic ligaments are probably involved in sacral avulsion caused by lateral traction. Therefore, ligaments should to be taken into account in diagnosis of open-book injury and subsequent therapy. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Bone, Fracture, Joint, Pelvis, Ligament, Sacrum, Pelvimetry, Hip bone