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Concept: Herpes


We previously reported that talimogene laherparepvec, an oncolytic herpes virus encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), resulted in an objective response rate of 26 % in patients with advanced melanoma in a phase II clinical trial. The response of individual lesions, however, was not reported. Since talimogene laherparepvec is thought to mediate anti-tumor activity through both direct tumor cytolysis and induction of systemic tumor-specific immunity, we sought to determine the independent response rate in virus-injected and non-injected lesions.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Clinical trial, Innate immune system, Immunology, The Independent, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Herpes


Infections and other stressors have been implicated in the development of fibromyalgia. We hypothesized that these stressors could result in recurrent reactivations of latent herpes virus infections, which could lead to the development of fibromyalgia. This study evaluated a famciclovir + celecoxib drug combination (IMC-1), active against suspected herpes virus reactivation and infection, for the treatment of fibromyalgia.

Concepts: Virus, Infection, Herpes simplex virus, Herpesviridae, Herpes simplex, Fatigue, Herpes


Pulmonary hypertension (PH) represents an important complication of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with a negative impact on patient survival. Herpes viruses are thought to play an etiological role in the development and/or progression of IPF. The influence of viruses on PH associated with IPF is unknown. We aimed to investigate the influence of viruses in IPF patients focusing on aspects related to PH. A laboratory mouse model of gamma-herpesvirus (MHV-68) induced pulmonary fibrosis was also assessed.

Concepts: Virus, Herpes simplex virus, Herpesviridae, Herpes simplex, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Herpes


Although neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a potentially devastating infection requiring prompt evaluation and treatment, large-scale assessments of the frequency in potentially infected infants have not been performed.

Concepts: Virus, Herpes simplex virus, Herpesviridae, Herpes simplex, Encephalitis, Herpes, Neonatal herpes simplex


To review recent advancements in the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) epithelial keratitis.

Concepts: Virus, Herpes simplex virus, Herpesviridae, Herpes simplex, Keratitis, Sexually transmitted diseases and infections, Encephalitis, Herpes


We report the case of an MS patient with aseptic temporal lobe encephalitis while on treatment with fingolimod. This 49-year-old woman developed headache and decreasing level of consciousness after 3.5 years of fingolimod therapy. Imaging, CSF studies, and rapid clinical response to acyclovir suggested a viral etiology, although CSF cultures and viral PCR were negative. This case illustrates the potential for severe manifestations of infectious illnesses on fingolimod, which may have a predilection for the CNS and also include herpes virus infections, cryptococcus, and PML. Efforts to prevent these secondary infections are limited by a lack of established risk factors.

Concepts: Virus, Infection, Multiple sclerosis, Temporal lobe, Herpes simplex virus, Herpes simplex, Encephalitis, Herpes


A systematic review and cost comparison were conducted to determine the optimal treatment of active herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) in immunocompetent adults.

Concepts: Herpes zoster, Herpes


Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (Acanthaceae) is known as traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal and herpes virus infections. A new naphthoquinone racemate, rhinacasutone (1) together with seven known compounds, rhinacanthone (2), rhinacanthins C, D, N, Q, and E (3-7), and heliobuphthalmin (8) were isolated from root of R. nasutus. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D-, 2D-NMR and MS data. All the isolated compounds were tested for their antiviral activities against PR8, HRV1B, and CVB3-infected vero cells. Compounds 3-6 exhibited significant antiviral activities with the IC50 value ranging from 0.03 to 23.7 μM in all three infections.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Bacteria, Virus, Herpes simplex virus, Herpes simplex, Antibiotic, Rabies, Herpes


Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an uncommon but devastating infection in the newborn, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of PCR for identification of infected infants and acyclovir for treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for affected infants. The subsequent use of suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir following completion of parenteral treatment of acute disease has further enhanced the long-term prognosis for these infants. This review article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and routes of acquisition, clinical presentation, and evaluation of an infant suspected to have the infection, and treatment of proven neonatal HSV disease.

Concepts: Infant, Epidemiology, Infectious disease, Virus, Infection, Herpes simplex, Herpes, Neonatal herpes simplex


Herpes simplex (HSV) viruses are widely spread, highly contagious human pathogens. The statistics indicate that 50-90% of adults worldwide are seropositive for these viruses, mainly HSV-1 and HSV-2. The primary infection results in the appearance of watery blisters (cold sores) on the skin, lips, tongue, buccal mucosa or genitals. The ocular infection is the major cause of corneal blindness in the Western World. Once the HSV virus enters human body it cannot be completely eradicated because HSV viruses are able to change into their latent form which can survive the treatment. The viron reside in trigeminal ganglia of the host, who becomes vulnerable to reoccurrence of the disease during the whole lifespan. The neurotropic and neuro-invasive properties of HSV are considered as responsible for neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Acyclovir and its analogues, being the inhibitors of the viral DNA replication, are the only approved medicines for HSV infection therapies.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Virus, Herpes simplex virus, Herpesviridae, Herpes simplex, Mandibular nerve, Valaciclovir, Herpes