SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Hero

9

In this paper we examine the factors contributing to the emergence of leadership in a group, and we explore the relationship between the role of the leader and the behavioural capabilities of other individuals. We use a simulation technique where a group of foraging robots must coordinate to choose between two identical food zones in order to forage collectively. Behavioural and quantitative analysis indicate that a form of leadership emerges, and that groups with a leader are more effective than groups without. Moreover, we show that the most skilled individuals in a group tend to be the ones that assume a leadership role, supporting biological findings. Further analysis reveals the emergence of different “styles” of leadership (active and passive).

Concepts: Psychology, Sociology, Geometry, Skill, Leadership, Autonomous robot, Hero, Kurt Lewin

8

As appeals for public access of research data continue to proliferate, many scholarly publishers-alongside funders, institutions, and libraries-are expanding their role to address this need. Here we outline eight recommendations and a set of suggested action items for publishers to promote and contribute to increasing access to data. This call to action emerged from a summit that brought together data stewardship leaders across stakeholder groups. The recommendations were subsequently refined by the community as a result of public input gathered online and in meetings.

Concepts: Sociology, Law, Management, Writing, Stakeholder, Public relations, Hero

3

Despite our progress in understanding the organizational context for implementation and specifically the role of leadership in implementation, its role in sustainment has received little attention. This paper took a mixed-method approach to examine leadership during the sustainment phase of the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework. Utilizing the Implementation Leadership Scale as a foundation, we sought to develop a short, practical measure of sustainment leadership that can be used for both applied and research purposes.

Concepts: Research, Management, Leadership, Short, Hero, The Long Haul, Amanda Stern

2

Clinical Leaders drive healthcare performance in the provision of safe high quality patient care by influencing others and augmenting change. Clinical leadership features strongly in Nurse Consultant (NC) roles and holds potential to strengthen the NC’s place in healthcare teams, making their contribution as clinical leaders more recognisable. This study explores how clinical leadership is enacted through the NC role, providing understanding of the elements that influence their effectiveness as clinical leaders.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Clinical trial, Medical ethics, Illness, Social influence, Hero

2

Some scholars have posited that certain traits associated with psychopathy-namely, fearlessness, boldness, and willingness to take risks-are associated with greater engagement in heroic and altruistic acts; nevertheless, this conjecture has received little empirical attention. We examined the relations among psychopathic traits, heroism, altruism, workplace deviance, and leadership in first-responder (n = 138) and civilian (n = 104) samples recruited by means of an online platform. Across samples, fearless dominance, boldness, sensation seeking, and several other psychopathy-related variables were positively and significantly associated with everyday heroism and altruism. First responders scored significantly higher than did civilians on measures of psychopathy, fearlessness, boldness, heroism, and altruism, and reported significantly greater workplace deviance and participation in leadership activities. Our results support previous suggestions of ties between psychopathic traits, especially fearlessness and heroism, although they leave unresolved the question of why certain antisocial and prosocial behaviors appear to covary. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Antisocial personality disorder, Conduct disorder, Psychopathy, Social psychology, Reciprocal altruism, Altruism, Antisocial, Hero

2

Portraits of moral heroes often portray the hero gazing up and to the viewer’s right in part because ideologically minded followers select and propagate these images of their leaders. Study 1 found that the gaze direction of portraits of moral heroes (e.g., Martin Luther King, Jr.) tend to show the hero looking up-and-right more often than chance would predict, and more often than portraits of celebrities (e.g., Elvis Presley) do. In Studies 2 and 3, we asked participants to play the role of an ideologically motivated follower, and select an image of their leader to promote the cause. Participants preferentially selected the up-and-right version. In Study 4, we found that conceptual metaphors linking directionality to personal virtues of warmth, pride, and future-mindedness helped explain why the up-and-right posture looks most heroic. Followers play an active role in advancing social causes by portraying their leaders as moral heroes.

Concepts: Sociology, Leadership, Right-wing politics, Grammy Award winners, Hero, Memphis, Tennessee, Elvis Presley

1

Palliative care aims to alleviate the suffering of patients with life-limiting illness while promoting their quality of life. In this call to action commentary, we review the ways in which nursing care and palliative care align, describe barriers to nurses engaging in palliative care, and provide specific recommendations for nurses involved in education, training, and administration to assist nurses at all levels of practice to engage in palliative care for their patients.

Concepts: Life, Palliative care, Management, Nursing, Nurse, Suffering, Nursing specialties, Hero

1

To describe factors facilitating or inhibiting the development of registered nurses' competency and nurse leader’s role in knowledge management.

Concepts: Skill, Management, Strategic management, Nursing, Leadership, Knowledge management, Nursing board certification, Hero

1

The psychological investigation of heroism is relatively new. At this stage, inductive methods can shed light on its main aspects. Therefore, we examined the social representations of Hero and Everyday Hero by collecting word associations from two separate representative samples in Hungary. We constructed two networks from these word associations. The results show that the social representation of Hero is more centralized and it cannot be divided into smaller units. The network of Everyday Hero is divided into five units and the significance moves from abstract hero characteristics to concrete social roles and occupations exhibiting pro-social values. We also created networks from the common associations of Hero and Everyday Hero. The structures of these networks show a moderate similarity and the connections are more balanced in case of Everyday Hero. While heroism in general can be the source of inspiration, the promotion of everyday heroism can be more successful in encouraging ordinary people to recognize their own potential for heroic behavior.

Concepts: Sociology, Hero

1

In many animal groups, coordinated activity is facilitated by the emergence of leaders and followers. Although the identity of leaders is to some extent predictable, most groups experience frequent changes of leadership. How do group members cope with such changes in their social role? Here, we compared the foraging behaviour of pairs of stickleback fish after a period of either (i) role reinforcement, which involved rewarding the shyer follower for following, and the bolder leader for leading, or (ii) role reversal, which involved rewarding the shyer follower for leading, and the bolder leader for following. We found that, irrespective of an individual’s temperament, its tendency to follow is malleable, whereas the tendency to initiate collective movement is much more resistant to change. As a consequence of this lack of flexibility in initiative, greater temperamental differences within a pair led to improved performance when typical roles were reinforced, but to impaired performance when typical roles were reversed.

Concepts: Sociology, Management, Leadership, Role, Fiedler contingency model, Hero