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Concept: HER2/neu

7

Within 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis, roughly 5% of patients develop contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Randomized trials have found that therapy including tamoxifen citrate and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) reduces CBC risk. But little is known about the magnitude and duration of protective associations within the context of real-world clinical management settings, where varying durations of and gaps in treatment are common.

Concepts: Breast cancer, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, HER2/neu, Tamoxifen, Aromatase inhibitor, Anastrozole

6

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Chemotherapy, ClinicalTrials.gov, HER2/neu, Inflammatory breast cancer

6

The 13th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference (2013) Expert Panel reviewed and endorsed substantial new evidence on aspects of the local and regional therapies for early breast cancer, supporting less extensive surgery to the axilla and shorter durations of radiation therapy. It refined its earlier approach to the classification and management of luminal disease in the absence of amplification or overexpression of the Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene, while retaining essentially unchanged recommendations for the systemic adjuvant therapy of HER2-positive and ‘triple-negative’ disease. The Panel again accepted that conventional clinico-pathological factors provided a surrogate subtype classification, while noting that in those areas of the world where multi-gene molecular assays are readily available many clinicians prefer to base chemotherapy decisions for patients with luminal disease on these genomic results rather than the surrogate subtype definitions. Several multi-gene molecular assays were recognized as providing accurate and reproducible prognostic information, and in some cases prediction of response to chemotherapy. Cost and availability preclude their application in many environments at the present time. Broad treatment recommendations are presented. Such recommendations do not imply that each Panel member agrees: indeed, among more than 100 questions, only one (trastuzumab duration) commanded 100% agreement. The various recommendations in fact carried differing degrees of support, as reflected in the nuanced wording of the text below and in the votes recorded in supplementary Appendix S1, available at Annals of Oncology online. Detailed decisions on treatment will as always involve clinical consideration of disease extent, host factors, patient preferences and social and economic constraints.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Oncology, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epidermal growth factor, Chemotherapy, Trastuzumab, HER2/neu

5

The goal of this study was to prepare a synthetic peptide derived from breast tumor associated antigen and to evaluate its potential as a breast cancer imaging agent.

Concepts: Protein, Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Chemotherapy, Pleural effusion, HER2/neu, Janet Lane-Claypon

4

The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis revealed that somatic EGFR, receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (ERBB2), Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (ERBB3) and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) gene mutations (ERBB family mutations) occur alone or co-occur with somatic mutations in the gene encoding the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) in 19% of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers. Because ERBB family mutations can activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and likely have similar canonical signalling effects to PI3K pathway mutations, we investigated their combined impact on response to neoadjuvant HER2-targeted therapies.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Signal transduction, Epidermal growth factor receptor, HER2/neu

4

We previously described and validated a breast cancer staging system (CPS+EG, clinical-pathologic scoring system incorporating estrogen receptor-negative disease and nuclear grade 3 tumor pathology) for assessing prognosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using pretreatment clinical stage, posttreatment pathologic stage, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and grade. Development of the CPS+EG staging system predated routine administration of trastuzumab in patients with ERBB2-positive disease (formerly HER2 or HER2/neu).

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Estrogen, Trastuzumab, HER2/neu, Tamoxifen

4

PURPOSERisk of distant recurrence (DR) among women with estrogen receptor (ER) -positive early breast cancer is the major determinant of recommendations for or against chemotherapy. It is frequently estimated using the Oncotype DX recurrence score (RS). The PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) score provides an alternative approach, which also identifies intrinsic subtypes. PATIENTS AND METHODSmRNA from 1,017 patients with ER-positive primary breast cancer treated with anastrozole or tamoxifen in the ATAC trial was assessed for ROR using the NanoString nCounter. Likelihood ratio (LR) tests and concordance indices (c indices) were used to assess the prognostic information provided beyond that of a clinical treatment score (CTS) by RS, ROR, or IHC4, an index of DR risk derived from immunohistochemical assessment of ER, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epidermal growth factor, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, HER2/neu, Tamoxifen

3

Current treatment for HER-2+ breast cancer includes chemotherapy and targeted HER-2 therapy with trastuzumab and/or pertuzumab. Evidence is lacking on the safety of breast reconstructive operations in these patients. We hypothesized that targeted HER-2 therapy was not associated with post-mastectomy reconstructive outcomes.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Chemotherapy, Trastuzumab, Breast, Chemotherapy regimens, HER2/neu

3

A subset of HER2+ breast cancer patients manifest clinical resistance to trastuzumab. Recently, miR-26a and miR-30b have been identified as trastuzumab response regulators, and their target gene CCNE2 seems to play an important role in resistance to trastuzumab therapy. Cell viability was evaluated in trastuzumab treated HER2+ BT474 wt (sensitive), BT474r (acquired resistance), HCC1954 (innate resistance), and MDA-MB-231 (HER2-) cell lines, and the expression of miR-26a, miR-30b, and their target genes was measured. BT474 wt cell viability decreased by 60% and miR-26a and miR-30b were significantly overexpressed (~3-fold, p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively) after trastuzumab treatment, but no differences were observed in resistant and control cell lines. Overexpression of miR-30b sensitized BT474r cells to trastuzumab (p = 0.01) and CCNE2, was significantly overexpressed after trastuzumab treatment in BT474r cells (p = 0.032), but no significant changes were observed in sensitive cell line. When CCNE2 was silenced BT474r cell sensitivity to trastuzumab increased (p = 0.03). Thus, the molecular mechanism of trastuzumab action in BT474 cell line may be regulated by miR-26a and miR-30b and CCNE2 overexpression might play an important role in acquired trastuzumab resistance in HER2+ breast cancer given that resistance was diminished when CCNE2 was silenced.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Gene expression, Cell, Breast cancer, Cell biology, Trastuzumab, HER2/neu

3

MammaTyper is a novel CE-marked in vitro diagnostic RT-qPCR assay which assigns routinely processed breast cancer specimens into the molecular subtypes Luminal A-like, Luminal B-like (HER2 positive or negative), HER2 positive (non-luminal) and Triple negative (ductal) according to the mRNA expression of ERBB2, ESR1, PGR and MKI67 and the St Gallen consensus surrogate clinical definition. Until now and regarding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material (FFPE), this has been a task mostly accomplished by immunohistochemistry (IHC). However the discrepancy rates of IHC for the four breast cancer biomarkers are frequently under debate, especially for Ki-67 which carries the highest degree of inter- and even intra-observer variability. Herein we describe a series of studies in FFPE specimens which aim to fully validate the analytical performance of the MammaTyper assay, including the site to site reproducibility of the individual marker measurements.

Concepts: Gene expression, Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Trastuzumab, HER2/neu, Oncogene, Tamoxifen