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Concept: Hepatic portal vein


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of liver glycogen loading on net hepatic glycogen synthesis during hyperinsulinemia or hepatic portal vein glucose infusion in vivo. Liver glycogen levels were supercompensated (SCGly) in two groups (using intraportal fructose infusion) but not in two others (Gly) during hyperglycemic-normoinsulinemia. Following a 2-h control period during which fructose infusion was stopped, there was a 2-h experimental period in which the response to hyperglycemia plus either 4× basal insulin (INS) or portal vein glucose infusion (PoG) was measured. Increased hepatic glycogen reduced the percent of glucose taken up by the liver that was deposited in glycogen (74 ± 3 vs. 53 ± 5% in Gly+INS and SCGly+INS, respectively, and 72 ± 3 vs. 50 ± 6% in Gly+PoG and SCGly+PoG, respectively). The reduction in liver glycogen synthesis in SCGly+INS was accompanied by a decrease in both insulin signaling and an increase in AMPK activation, whereas only the latter was observed in SCGly+PoG. These data indicate that liver glycogen loading impairs glycogen synthesis regardless of the signal used to stimulate it.

Concepts: Insulin, Glucose, Cirrhosis, Liver, Glycogen, Hepatic portal vein, Portal venous system, Hepatic portal system


Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases and is responsible for most clinical consequences of cirrhosis, which represent the more frequent causes of death and liver transplantation in these patients. This review is aimed at clarifying the state-of-the art assessment of portal hypertension and at discussing recent developments in this field. Particular attention is paid to new noninvasive techniques that will be soon available for potential routine use.

Concepts: Medicine, Death, Medical terms, Cirrhosis, Liver, Hepatology, Hepatic portal vein, Liver transplantation


To evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous transsplenic portal vein catheterization (PTSPC) by retrospective review of its use in patients with portal vein (PV) occlusion.

Concepts: Vein, Computer program, Hepatic portal vein, Portal venous system



Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH), defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio) instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.

Concepts: Medical terms, Blood pressure, Cirrhosis, Vein, Von Willebrand factor, Von Willebrand disease, Hepatic portal vein, Portal venous system


Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is due to many risk factors, but its pathogenesis is still not clearly understood. To identify the risk factors for PVT, we analyzed the clinical characteristics and complications associated with PVT in cirrhotic patients.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Thrombosis, Vein, Hepatic portal vein, Portal vein thrombosis, Portal venous system


The liver plays a crucial role in coagulation cascade. Global hemostatic process is profoundly influenced by the presence of liver disease and its complications. Patients with cirrhosis have impaired synthesis of most of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis process due to a reduced liver function and altered platelet count secondary to portal hypertension. Altered routine tests and thrombocytopenia were considered in the past as associated with increased risk of bleeding. These concepts explain both the routine use of plasma and/or platelets transfusion in patients with liver cirrhosis, especially before invasive procedures, and why these patients were considered “auto-anticoagulated”. New recent evidences show that patients with liver cirrhosis have a more complex hemostatic alteration. Despite the presence of altered levels of factors involved in primary hemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis, patients with stable cirrhosis have a rebalanced hemostatic, which however can easily be altered by decompensation or infection, both in hemorrhagic or thrombotic direction. Patients with cirrhosis have an increased risk of venous thrombotic events (namely portal vein thrombosis) while bleeding seems to be related to the grade of portal hypertension rather than to a hemostatic imbalance. The use of anticoagulants both as treatment or prophylaxis is safe, reduces the rate of portal vein thrombosis and decompensation, and improves survival. Standard laboratory coagulation tests are unable to predict bleeding and are inadequate for the assessment of hemostatic status in these patients, hence more comprehensive tests are required to guide the management of thrombotic and bleeding complications.

Concepts: Blood, Thrombosis, Coagulation, Liver, Platelet, Hemostasis, Hepatology, Hepatic portal vein


Liver cirrhosis is a large burden on global health, causing over one million deaths per year. Observational studies have reported an inverse association between coffee and cirrhosis.

Concepts: Scientific method, Cirrhosis, Liver, Bilirubin, Hepatitis C, Hepatic portal vein, Liver transplantation, Names of large numbers


This study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the liver function, structure and inflammation in a experimental model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) )-induced liver cirrhosis. Wistar rats were divided into Control, LLLT, CCl(4) and CCl(4) +LLLT groups. CCl(4) groups received CCl(4) (0.4 g kg(-1) ; i.p.), three times a week, for 12 weeks. A 830 nm LLLT was performed with a continuous wave, 35 mW, 2.5 J cm(-2) per point, applied to four points of the liver (right and left upper and lower extremities, in the four lobes of the liver) for 2 weeks. Liver structure and inflammation (cirrhotic areas, collagen deposition, inflammation, density of Kupffer and hepatic stellate cells) and function (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total proteins and globulins) were evaluated. LLLT significantly reduced CCl(4) -increased aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.001), alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.001), gamma-glutamyl transferase (P < 0.001) and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.01) activity, as well as total proteins (P < 0.05) and globulins (P < 0.01). LLLT also reduced the number of cirrhotic areas, the collagen accumulation and the hepatic inflammatory infiltrate. Of note, LLLT reduced CCl(4) -increased number of Kupffer cells (P < 0.05) and hepatic stellate cells (P < 0.05). We conclude that LLLT presents beneficial effects on liver function and structure in an experimental model of CCl(4) -induced cirrhosis.

Concepts: Enzyme, Glucose, Cirrhosis, Liver, Liver function tests, Bilirubin, Hepatic portal vein, Hepatic stellate cell


We sought to investigate the perioperative inflammatory response and immunological function of patients with portal hypertension-induced splenomegaly who underwent laparoscopic (LS) or open splenectomy (OS).

Concepts: Immune system, Cirrhosis, Liver, Bilirubin, Hepatitis C, Hepatic portal vein, Splenomegaly, Liver transplantation