Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Hemothorax


Small 14F pigtail catheters (PCs) have been shown to drain air quite well in patients with traumatic pneumothorax (PTX). But their effectiveness in draining blood in patients with traumatic hemothorax (HTX) or hemopneumothorax (HPTX) is unknown. We hypothesized that 14F PCs can drain blood as well as large-bore 32F to 40F chest tubes. We herein report our early case series experience with PCs in the management of traumatic HTX and HPTX.

Concepts: Hospital, Pulmonary contusion, Pneumothorax, Physical trauma, Chest tube, Hemothorax, Chest trauma, Hemopneumothorax


Most cases of hemothorax are related to blunt or penetrating chest trauma. Criteria for surgical intervention for initial hemothorax are well defined. Appropriate management of retained hemothorax following initial trauma management is critical, and the best approach remains controversial. Spontaneous hemothorax is much less common and results from a variety of pathologic processes. This article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic and spontaneous hemothorax in modern practice.

Concepts: Pathology, Hospital, Surgery, Pulmonary contusion, Medical diagnosis, Psychological trauma, Hemothorax, Chest trauma


This paper reports a rare iatrogenic complication of acupuncture-induced haemothorax and comments on the importance and need for special education of physicians and physiotherapists in order to apply safe and effective acupuncture treatment. A 37-year-old healthy woman had a session of acupuncture treatments for neck and right upper thoracic non-specific musculoskeletal pain, after which she gradually developed dyspnoea and chest discomfort. After some delay while trying other treatment, she was eventually transferred to the emergency department where a chest X-ray revealed a right pneumothorax and fluid collection. She was admitted to hospital and a chest tube inserted into the right hemithorax (under ultrasound guidance) drained 800 mL of bloody fluid (haematocrit (Hct) 17.8%) in 24 h and 1200 mL over the following 3 days. Her blood Hct fell from 39.0% to 30.8% and haemoglobin from 12.7 to 10.3 g/dL. The patient recovered completely and was discharged after 9 days of hospitalisation. When dyspnoea, chest pain and discomfort occur during or after an acupuncture treatment, the possibility of secondary (traumatic) pneumo- or haemopneumothorax should be considered and the patient should remain under careful observation (watchful waiting) for at least 48 h. To maximise the safety of acupuncture, specific training should be given for the safe use of acupuncture points of the anterior and posterior thoracic wall using dry needling, trigger point acupuncture or other advanced acupuncture techniques.

Concepts: Hospital, Acupuncture, Pneumothorax, Thoracic cavity, Chest tube, Hemothorax, Trigger point, Dry needling


EAST guidelines suggest tube thoracostomy (TT) be considered for all traumatic hemothoraces. However, previous research has suggested that some traumatic hemothoraces may be observed safely. We sought to 1) determine the safety of selective observation for traumatic hemothorax, and 2) identify predictors of failed observation.

Concepts: Scientific method, Pneumothorax, Reliability engineering, Safety, Accident, Chest tube, Hemothorax


The study aimed to establish the benefits of using chest tubes with negative pleural suction against trapped water in patients with penetrating or blunt chest trauma who underwent tube thoracostomy, in terms of the incidence of complications, such as persistent air leak, clotted hemothorax, empyema, and duration of stay.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Pulmonary contusion, Pneumothorax, Chest tube, Hemothorax, Penetrating trauma, Chest trauma, Flail chest


Cryoprobe biopsies are routinely performed by the interventional pulmonologist. Diagnostic yields are larger, with complication rates that are equal to or lower than that of traditional forceps biopsies. We will specifically evaluate one instance where a cryoprobe biopsy led to an alveolo-pleural fistula that did not resolve with simple tube thoracostomy. An endobronchial valve was placed and successfully resolved the pneumothorax and persistent air leak.

Concepts: Cancer, Pulmonology, Crohn's disease, Pneumothorax, Chest tube, Flutter valve, Hemothorax, Leak


Delayed massive hemothorax requiring surgery is relatively uncommon and can potentially be life-threatening. Here, we aimed to describe the nature and cause of delayed massive hemothorax requiring immediate surgery. Over 5 years, 1,278 consecutive patients were admitted after blunt trauma. Delayed hemothorax is defined as presenting with a follow-up chest radiograph and computed tomography showing blunting or effusion. A massive hemothorax is defined as blood drainage >1,500 mL after closed thoracostomy and continuous bleeding at 200 mL/hr for at least four hours. Five patients were identified all requiring emergency surgery. Delayed massive hemothorax presented 63.6±21.3 hours after blunt chest trauma. All patients had superficial diaphragmatic lacerations caused by the sharp edge of a broken rib. The mean preoperative chest tube drainage was 3,126±463 mL. We emphasize the high-risk of massive hemothorax in patients who have a broken rib with sharp edges.

Concepts: Medical emergencies, Pulmonary contusion, Pneumothorax, Thorax, Chest tube, Hemothorax, Chest trauma, Rib fracture


Tube thoracostomy is frequently used in thoracic trauma patients. However, there is no consensus on whether low pressure suction or water seal is the optimal method of tube management. Against this background, we performed a systematic review of studies comparing suction and water seal management of chest tubes placed for traumatic chest injuries in adults. Evaluated outcomes are duration of chest tube treatment, length of stay in hospital, incidence of persistent air leak, clotted hemothorax, and the need for (re-)interventions.

Concepts: Pulmonary contusion, Pneumothorax, Physical trauma, Chest tube, Hemothorax, Chest trauma


Background/aim: This study aimed to evaluate traumatic thorax complications in post-CPR patients and to investigate whether or not there has been a decrease in these complications since the adoption of current chest compression recommendations. Materials and methods: Post-CPR patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were admitted between January 2014 and January 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients admitted to the ED in 2014 were resuscitated according to 2010 AHA CPR guidelines, while those admitted to the ED in 2015 were resuscitated according to current ERC CPR guidelines. Results: The study population comprised 48 male and 35 female patients. Of the 2010 AHA guideline patients, 39.21% experienced pulmonary contusion, while 54.83% of 2015 ERC guideline patients had pulmonary contusion. It was found that 11.76% of 2010 AHA guideline patients and 3.22% of 2015 ERC guideline patients had pneumothorax, while 9.8% of 2010 AHA guideline patients and 12.9% of 2015 ERC guideline patients experienced hemothorax. Incidence rates of lung contusion, pneumothorax, and hemothorax were higher in patients with rib fractures. Conclusion: In this study, traumatic thoracic complications were investigated in patients with ROSC after CPR. The incidence of CRP-related injuries did not decrease on application of the new 2015 ERC CPR guideline recommendations. The most common injury in this study was rib fracture, followed by sternal fracture, lung contusion, hemothorax, and pneumothorax. Statistically, rib fracture had a positive relationship with lung contusion, hemothorax, and pneumothorax.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Heart, Pulmonary contusion, Pneumothorax, Thorax, Hemothorax, Chest trauma, Rib fracture


We report a case of a 35-years-old man who presented a massive haemothorax and hypovolemic shock following cardiac surgery, from spontaneous rupture of a phrenic artery. A quick diagnosis and immediate intervention is crucial to manage the patient.

Concepts: Blood, Medical terms, Medical emergencies, Shock, Physician, Hypovolemia, Hemothorax