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Concept: Hemorrhoid


INTRODUCTION: The elastic ligature is the most used method for the out-patient treatment of haemorrhoids, with excellent results in control of bleeding. However, the recurrences in prolapse vary between 15 and 40%. We propose a new method for applying the elastic ligatures. PATIENTS: A total of 17 patients with grade iii haemorrhoids were chosen for the vertical ligatures (VL). The first elastic band was placed 3 to 4cm from the pectineal line and 1 or 2 more in the root of the haemorrhoid group. Another 34 randomly selected patients were used as a control group. Data collected included, demographic details, number of bands and sessions, pain scale, complications and results. The patients were followed up at week one, week 3, and 3 months and one year after the intervention. RESULTS: A total of 12 males and 5 females, with a median age of 46 years, were treated with VL. The median follow-up was 10 (from 8 to 19) months. A median of 3 sessions and 7 elastic bands were used, with 6 patients having moderate pain that required analgesic treatment. None of the patients needed urgent treatment for pain or bleeding. There was a complete response to bleeding in 15 patients (88.2%) and to prolapse in 14 (82.2%). Two patients required haemorrhoidectomy due to treatment failure. The measurements of therapeutic effect after one year were: number needed to treat (NNT) of 4 (95% CI, 2 to 22), for prolapse, and NNT of 4 (95% CI, 2 a 15), for bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Elastic ligatures could become a new treatment option for Grade iii haemorrhoids, improving control of bleeding and prolapse.

Concepts: Controlling for a variable, Scientific control, Patient, Rubber band, Pain, Prolapse, Demographics, Hemorrhoid


BACKGROUND: Haemorrhoids (piles) are a very common condition seen in surgical clinics. After exclusion of more sinister causes of haemorrhoidal symptoms (rectal bleeding, perianal irritation and prolapse), the best option for treatment, depends upon persistence and severity of the symptoms. Minor symptoms often respond to conservative treatment such as dietary fibre and reassurance. For more severe symptoms treatment such as rubber band ligation may be therapeutic and is a very commonly performed procedure in the surgical outpatient setting. Surgery is usually reserved for those who have more severe symptoms, as well as those who do not respond to non-operative therapy; surgical techniques include haemorrhoidectomy and haemorrhoidopexy. More recently, haemorrhoidal artery ligation has been introduced as a minimally invasive, non destructive surgical option. There are substantial data in the literature concerning efficacy and safety of ‘rubber band ligation including multiple comparisons with other interventions, though there are no studies comparing it to haemorrhoidal artery ligation. A recent overview has been carried out by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence which concludes that current evidence shows haemorrhoidal artery ligation to be a safe alternative to haemorrhoidectomy and haemorrhoidopexy though it also highlights the lack of good quality data as evidence for the advantages of the technique. Methods/design The aim of this study is to establish the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of haemorrhoidal artery ligation compared with conventional rubber band ligation in the treatment of people with symptomatic second or third degree (Grade II or Grade III) haemorrhoids. DESIGN: A multi-centre, parallel group randomised controlled trial. Outcomes: The primary outcome is patient-reported symptom recurrence twelve months following the intervention. Secondary outcome measures relate to symptoms, complications, health resource use, health related quality of life and cost effectiveness following the intervention. Participants: 350 patients with grade II or grade III haemorrhoids will be recruited in surgical departments in up to 14 NHS hospitals. Randomisation: A multi-centre, parallel group randomised controlled trial. Block randomisation by centre will be used, with 175 participants randomised to each group. DISCUSSION: The results of the research will help inform future practice for the treatment of grade II and III haemorrhoids. Trial Registration ISRCTN41394716.

Concepts: Perianal hematoma, Efficacy, Prolapse, Clinical trial, Dietary fiber, Rubber band ligation, Randomized controlled trial, Hemorrhoid


Aim  The study aimed to use power Doppler imaging (PDI) transanal ultrasonography to produce three-dimensional power Doppler angiography images of haemorrhoidal tissue and to monitor the effects of Doppler-guided aluminium potassium sulfate and tannic acid (DGALTA) sclerotherapy. Method  Ninety-six haemorrhoids in 43 patients were examined using PDI transanal ultrasonography, and DGALTA sclerotherapy was performed from April 2011 to April 2012. DGALTA sclerotherapy was conducted using a four-step injection process with pulse wave Doppler ultrasound under perianal local anaesthesia. Results  A three-dimensional power Doppler angiography image of the blood flow in haemorrhoidal tissue was produced using PDI transanal ultrasonography. The cross-sectional area of blood flow in the haemorrhoidal tissue (PDI area) significantly decreased after DGALTA sclerotherapy. The PDI areas in the preoperative state and 1 and 3 months after treatment were 0.35 ± 0.27, 0.03 ± 0.05 and 0.04 ± 0.05 cm(2) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion  A three-dimensional power Doppler angiography image of the haemorrhoidal tissue was technically possible and showed blood flow in the haemorrhoidal tissue to be significantly decreased after DGALTA sclerotherapy.

Concepts: Radiology, Medical imaging, Perianal hematoma, Doppler effect, Hemorrhoid, Medical ultrasonography, Sclerotherapy, Ultrasound


AIM: An evaluation was performed of the one-year outcome of open haemorrhoidectomy (Milligan-Morgan alone or with posterior mucosal anoplasty [Leopold Bellan procedure]). METHOD: A prospective, multicentre, observational study included all patients having a planned haemorrhoidectomy from January 2007 of June 2008. Data were collected before surgery, at three months and one year after surgery. Patients assessed their anal symptoms and quality of life (SF-36). RESULTS: 633 patients (median age 48 years, 56.5% female) underwent haemorrhoidectomy including Milligan-Morgan alone (n=231, 36.5%) or the Leopold Bellan procedure (posterior mucosal anoplasty) for resection of a fourth haemorrhoid (n=345, 54.5%), anal fissure (n=56, 8.9%) or low anal fistula (n=1, 0.16%). Median healing time was 6 weeks. Early complications included urinary retention (n=3), bleeding (n=11), local infection (n=7) and faecal impaction (n=9). At one year, main complications included skin tags (n=2) and anal stenosis (n=23). There were three recurrences requiring a second haemorrhoidectomy. On a visual analogue scale, anal pain at one year had fallen from a median of 5.5/10 before treatment to 0.1/10 (p<0.001), anal discomfort from 5.5/10 to 0.1/10 (p<0.001) and the KESS constipation score from 9/45 to 6/45 (p<0.001). The median Wexner score for anal incontinence was unchanged (2/20). De novo anal incontinence (Wexner >5) affected 8.5% of patients at one year, but preoperative incontinence disappeared in 16.7% of patients with this symptom. All physical and mental domains of quality of life significantly improved and 88% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied. CONCLUSION: Complications of open haemorrhoidectomy were infrequent. Anal continence was not altered. Comfort and well-being were significantly improved at one year after surgery. Patient satisfaction was high despite residual anal symptoms. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

Concepts: Gastroenterology, Dietary fiber, Proctology, Surgery, Lateral internal sphincterotomy, Fecal incontinence, Hemorrhoid, Anal fissure


BACKGROUND: In 1988, Longo proposed a new treatment for haemorrhoidal disease. In western countries day surgery procedures are becoming more and more common. We propose a new protocol for outpatient haemorrhoidopexy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2003 to 2010, we performed 403 out-patient stapled haemorrhoidopexies under spinal anaesthesia, on patients with symptomatic grade III and IV haemorrhoid disease. We used PPH 01 and PPH 03 staplers (Ethicon Endosurgery, Cincinnati, OH, USA). We assessed early and late postoperative pain with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and clinical postoperative examinations were performed 7 days, 6 months, and 1, 3 and 5 years after surgery. RESULTS: The mean surgery time was about 20 min (range 13-39 min). Out of 403 patients, 41 were not dischargeable as a result of urine retention, severe pain or mild bleeding. Twenty-two patients reported transient faecal urgency, while no patient complained of anal incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience with 403 patients demonstrated that stapled haemorrhoidopexy is feasible and safe as a day surgery procedure. However, careful preoperative planning is necessary in order to evaluate the patients' health status and the consequent perioperative and postoperative risk. Our results are positive in terms of surgical safety and postoperative recovery time.

Concepts: Anesthesia, Doctor-patient relationship, Physician, Patient, Anal fissure, Hospital, Hemorrhoid, Surgery


Abstract Background: Pruritus ani (PA) is defined as intense chronic itching affecting perianal skin. Objective: We aimed to determine the efficacy of topical tacrolimus treatment in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients who have PA. Methods: The study included 32 patients with AD who were suffering PA. Patients were randomized into two groups. In total, 16 patients used 0.03% tacrolimus ointment and 16 patients used Vaseline® as placebo. All groups applied topical treatments to their perianal area twice daily for 4 weeks. The treatments were then reversed for 4 weeks after a 2 weeks wash out period. Results: In total, 32 patients with AD who had refractory anal itching were enrolled in the present study. None of the patients had obtained successful results with previous treatments. There was a statistically significant decrease in the recorded EASI, DLQI and itching scores for the tacrolimus group compared to the placebo groupat weeks 4 and 6 of treatment (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Topical tacrolimus treatment was well tolerated and effective in controlling persistent PA in AD patients.

Concepts: Hemorrhoid, Allergy, Symptoms, Atopic dermatitis, Anal fissure, Itch, Tacrolimus, Pruritus ani


: Doppler guidance in hemorrhoidal surgery has become more frequent during the past decade. The method is mainly studied in nonrandomized trials. Data from randomized controlled trials are lacking.

Concepts: Prolapse, Randomized controlled trial, Hemorrhoid


Introduction. Longo’s technique (or PPH technique) is well known worldwide. Meta-analysis suggests that the failure due to persistence or recurrence is close to 7.7%. One of the reasons for the recurrence is the treatment of the advanced hemorrhoidal prolapse with a single stapling device, which is not enough to resect the appropriate amount of prolapse. Materials and methods. We describe the application of “Double PPH Technique” (D-PPH) to treat large hemorrhoidal prolapses. We performed a multicentric, prospective, and nonrandomized trial from July 2008 to July 2009, wherein 2 groups of patients with prolapse and hemorrhoids were treated with a single PPH or a D-PPH. Results were compared. The primary outcome was evaluation of safety and efficacy of the D-PPH procedure in selected patients with large hemorrhoidal prolapse. Results. In all, 281 consecutive patients suffering from hemorrhoidal prolapse underwent surgery, of whom 74 were assigned intraoperatively to D-PPH, whereas 207 underwent single PPH. Postoperative complications were 5% in both groups (P = .32), in particular: postoperative major bleeding 3.0% in PPH versus 4.1% D-PPH (P = .59); pain 37.9 % PPH versus 27.3% D-PPH (mean visual analog scale [VAS] = 2.5 vs 2.9, respectively; P = .72); and fecal urgency 2.1% PPH versus 5.7% D-PPH (P = .8). Persistence of hemorrhoidal prolapse at 12-month follow-up was 3.7% in the PPH group versus 5.9% in the D-PPH group (P = .5). Conclusions. Our data support the hypothesis that an accurate intraoperative patient selection for single (PPH) or double (D-PPH) stapled technique will lower in a significant way the incidence of recurrence after Longo’s procedure for hemorrhoidal prolapse.

Concepts: Visual analogue scale, Bleeding, Staple, Fecal incontinence, 2008, Prolapse, Hemorrhoid


Anorectal manometry (ARCM) provides valuable information in children with chronic constipation and fecal incontinence but may not be tolerated in the awake child. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ketamine anesthesia on the assessment of anorectal function by manometry and to evaluate defecation dynamics and anal sphincter resting pressure in the context of pathophysiology of chronic functional (idiopathic) constipation and soiling in children.

Concepts: Opioid, Hemorrhoid, Constipation, Programming language, Anus, Feces, Fecal incontinence, Defecation


The purpose of the paper is to compare Goligher Classification with the Single Pile Hemorrhoid Classification (SPHC) to show the possible bias and limits of Goligher’s use and the possible advantage with the employment of the new classification. SPHC considers the number of pathological piles(N), the characteristics of each internal pile and the characteristics of each external pile, reporting the presence of a fibrous inelastic redundant pile(F), the presence of the subversion of dentate line or the congestion of the external pile(E) and the presence of not tolerated skin tags(S). From September 2010 to December 2012, 197 consecutive patients were analysed according to both classifications. Considering pathological piles, I and II Goligher patients showed a complete agreement between pathological pile and grade, III Goligher patients had 80.5 % of pathological piles of III grade while IV Goligher patients had only 44.3 % of IV grade pathological piles (p < 0.001). Regarding the distribution of the other anatomical variables: F, E, S described in SPHC, the results showed that F was present in 18.3 % while ES was present in 46.2 %. Goligher's Classification has showed to be an inadequate tool to overview surgical outcome or to compare surgical procedure, particularly for high grades, while SPHC showed to be a feasible instrument both to describe and to compare patients affected by hemorrhoid disease.

Concepts: Surgery, Pectinate line, Prolapse, Dietary fiber, Medicine, Physician, Hospital, Hemorrhoid