SciCombinator

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Concept: Hemorrhagic fevers

159

In 1967, a woman became ill after exposure to a newly discovered pathogen that we now call Marburg virus, a member of the family Filoviridae (filoviruses), to which Ebola virus also belongs.(1) Testing of the semen of her husband, who had recovered from the disease 6 weeks previously, determined that her exposure was through sexual intercourse. This was the first confirmed case of sexual transmission of filovirus disease from a convalescent man. It was also the last…until recently. In March 2015, Ebola virus disease (EVD) developed in a Liberian woman after the country had been free from EVD for 30 . . .

Concepts: Microbiology, Ebola, Marburg virus, Mononegavirales, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Incubation period, Filoviridae, Hemorrhagic fevers

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Our objective was to estimate the case fatality rates of Zaire, Sudan, and Bundibugyo Ebola species, responsible for sometimes-lethal hemorrhagic fevers.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Infection, Influenza, Biological warfare, World Health Organization, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Incubation period, Hemorrhagic fevers

15

Filoviruses are emerging pathogens and causative agents of viral haemorrhagic fever. Case fatality rates of filovirus disease outbreaks are among the highest reported for any human pathogen, exceeding 90% (ref. 1). Licensed therapeutic or vaccine products are not available to treat filovirus diseases. Candidate therapeutics previously shown to be efficacious in non-human primate disease models are based on virus-specific designs and have limited broad-spectrum antiviral potential. Here we show that BCX4430, a novel synthetic adenosine analogue, inhibits infection of distinct filoviruses in human cells. Biochemical, reporter-based and primer-extension assays indicate that BCX4430 inhibits viral RNA polymerase function, acting as a non-obligate RNA chain terminator. Post-exposure intramuscular administration of BCX4430 protects against Ebola virus and Marburg virus disease in rodent models. Most importantly, BCX4430 completely protects cynomolgus macaques from Marburg virus infection when administered as late as 48 hours after infection. In addition, BCX4430 exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against numerous viruses, including bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses and flaviviruses. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of non-human primate protection from filovirus disease by a synthetic drug-like small molecule. We provide additional pharmacological characterizations supporting the potential development of BCX4430 as a countermeasure against human filovirus diseases and other viral diseases representing major public health threats.

Concepts: Virus, Viral diseases, Ebola, Marburg virus, Mononegavirales, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Filoviridae, Hemorrhagic fevers

12

In 2008-09, evidence of Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) infection was found in domestic pigs and pig workers in the Philippines. With species of bats having been shown to be the cryptic reservoir of filoviruses elsewhere, the Philippine government, in conjunction with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, assembled a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional team to investigate Philippine bats as the possible reservoir of RESTV.

Concepts: Microbiology, Ebola, Mononegavirales, International Monetary Fund, Food and Agriculture Organization, Reston ebolavirus, Hemorrhagic fevers

4

Abstract Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services and clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), and therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM and IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, and typhus. A polymerase chain reaction-based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, and a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 and 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest and most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak.

Concepts: Ribavirin, Fever, Dengue fever, Viral diseases, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, Sierra Leone, Hemorrhagic fevers

2

On March 9, 2016, a male butcher from Kabale District, Uganda, aged 45 years, reported to the Kabale Regional Referral Hospital with fever, fatigue, and headache associated with black tarry stools and bleeding from the nose. One day later, a student aged 16 years from a different sub-county in Kabale District developed similar symptoms and was admitted to the same hospital. The student also had a history of contact with livestock. Blood specimens collected from both patients were sent for testing for Marburg virus disease, Ebola virus disease, Rift Valley fever (RVF), and Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic fever at the Uganda Virus Research Institute, as part of the viral hemorrhagic fevers surveillance program. The Uganda Virus Research Institute serves as the national viral hemorrhagic fever reference laboratory and hosts the national surveillance program for viral hemorrhagic fevers, in collaboration with the CDC Viral Special Pathogens Branch and the Uganda Ministry of Health.

Concepts: Viral diseases, Ebola, Marburg virus, Mononegavirales, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Myalgia, Filoviridae, Hemorrhagic fevers

2

Ebola virus (EBOV) causes high mortality hemorrhagic fevers, with over 24000 cases and 10000 deaths in the current outbreak. Only experimental therapies are available, thus, novel diagnosis tools and druggable targets are needed.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Organism, Virus, Genome, Biological warfare, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Hemorrhagic fevers

2

Filoviruses such as Ebola virus and Marburg virus cause a severe haemorrhagic fever syndrome in humans for which there is no specific treatment. Since filoviruses use a complex route of cell entry that depends on numerous cellular factors, we hypothesized that there may be drugs already approved for human use for other indications that interfere with signal transduction or other cellular processes required for their entry and hence have anti-filoviral properties.

Concepts: Virus, Species, Ebola, Marburg virus, Mononegavirales, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Filoviridae, Hemorrhagic fevers

1

Ebola and Marburg viruses (family Filoviridae, genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus) cause haemorrhagic fevers in humans, often associated with high mortality rates. The presence of antibodies to Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) has been reported in some African countries in individuals without a history of haemorrhagic fever. In this study, we present a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors in the Republic of Congo and the analysis of risk factors for contact with EBOV.

Concepts: Virus, Ebola, Marburg virus, Mononegavirales, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Filoviridae, Angola, Hemorrhagic fevers

1

In 2008 a nosocomial outbreak of five cases of viral hemorrhagic fever due to a novel arenavirus, Lujo virus, occurred in Johannesburg, South Africa. Lujo virus is only the second pathogenic arenavirus, after Lassa virus, to be recognized in Africa and the first in over 40 years. Because of the remote, resource-poor, and often politically unstable regions where Lassa fever and other viral hemorrhagic fevers typically occur, there have been few opportunities to undertake in-depth study of their clinical manifestations, transmission dynamics, pathogenesis, or response to treatment options typically available in industrialized countries.

Concepts: Microbiology, Ribavirin, Viral diseases, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, Arenavirus, Hemorrhagic fevers, Lujo virus