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Concept: Hemopneumothorax


Small 14F pigtail catheters (PCs) have been shown to drain air quite well in patients with traumatic pneumothorax (PTX). But their effectiveness in draining blood in patients with traumatic hemothorax (HTX) or hemopneumothorax (HPTX) is unknown. We hypothesized that 14F PCs can drain blood as well as large-bore 32F to 40F chest tubes. We herein report our early case series experience with PCs in the management of traumatic HTX and HPTX.

Concepts: Hospital, Pulmonary contusion, Pneumothorax, Physical trauma, Chest tube, Hemothorax, Chest trauma, Hemopneumothorax


Major blunt chest injury usually leads to the development of retained hemothorax and pneumothorax, and needs further intervention. However, since blunt chest injury may be combined with blunt head injury that typically requires patient observation for 3-4 days, other critical surgical interventions may be delayed. The purpose of this study is to analyze the outcomes of head injury patients who received early, versus delayed thoracic surgeries.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Pulmonary contusion, Physician, Pneumothorax, Hemothorax, Chest trauma, Hemopneumothorax


Thoracic endometriosis syndrome (TES) is a rare disorder presenting with catamenial pneumothorax, hemothorax, hemoptysis or pulmonary nodules. Bilateral involvement is uncommon, and only a very few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of bilateral catamenial hemothorax in a patient with recurrent thoracic endometriosis. Despite multiple surgical interventions, the patient continued to develop hemopneumothorax coinciding with menses. Remission was finally achieved with the addition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, highlighting the effectiveness of postoperative adjuvant hormone therapy and supporting a combined surgical and medical approach in the treatment of TES in patients who desire future fertility.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Patient, Pulmonary contusion, Pneumothorax, Endometriosis, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, Hemopneumothorax, Catamenial pneumothorax


Blunt chest injury is not uncommon in trauma patients. Haemothorax and pneumothorax may occur in these patients, and some of them will develop retained pleural collections. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has become an appropriate method for treating these complications, but the optimal timing for performing the surgery and its effects on outcome are not clearly understood.

Concepts: Pulmonary contusion, Pneumothorax, Physical trauma, VATS lobectomy, Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, Hemothorax, Chest trauma, Hemopneumothorax


Pulmonary injuries from blunt thoracic trauma are seen regularly with high-energy mechanisms but described less frequently in association with sports. Pneumothorax, hemothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pulmonary contusion are uncommon with athletic participation and often follow a benign clinical course. Life-threatening complications may arise, and athletes with chest trauma deserve close attention. Appropriate diagnosis is suggested by history and physical examination; conventional chest radiography is preferred as the initial imaging study but has limitations. Use of CT for trauma has improved diagnostic sensitivity for occult injury, although this may not alter management or outcomes. Return to play is guided by resolution of symptoms and radiographic findings.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Heart, Pulmonary contusion, Pneumothorax, Hemothorax, Chest trauma, Hemopneumothorax, Flail chest