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Concept: Hemodialysis

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Patients with end stage renal disease often fail to follow prescribed dietary and fluid regimen, leading to undesirable outcomes. This study aimed to examine and identify factors influencing dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis compliance behaviours in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Erythropoietin, Hemodialysis, Peritoneum, Artificial kidney

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BACKGROUND: Maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients universally suffer from excess toxin load. Hemodiafiltration (HDF) has shown its potential in better removal of small as well as large sized toxins, but its efficacy is restricted by inter-compartmental clearance. Intra-dialytic exercise on the other hand is also found to be effective for removal of toxins; the augmented removal is apparently obtained by better perfusion of skeletal muscles and decreased inter-compartmental resistance. The aim of this trial is to compare the toxin removal outcome associated with intra-dialytic exercise in HD and with post-dilution HDF.Methods/designThe main hypothesis of this study is that intra-dialytic exercise enhances toxin removal by decreasing the inter-compartmental resistance, a major impediment for toxin removal. To compare the HDF and HD with exercise, the toxin rebound for urea, creatinine, phosphate, and beta2-microglobulin will be calculated after 2 hours of dialysis. Spent dialysate will also be collected to calculate the removed toxin mass. To quantify the decrease in inter-compartmental resistance, the recently developed regional blood flow model will be employed. The study will be single center, randomized, self-control, open-label prospective clinical research where 15 study subjects will undergo three dialysis protocols (a) high flux HD, (b) post-dilution HDF, © high flux HD with exercise. Multiple blood samples during each study session will be collected to estimate the unknown model parameters. DISCUSSION: This will be the first study to investigate the exercise induced physiological change(s) responsible for enhanced toxin removal, and compare the toxin removal outcome both for small and middle sized toxins in HD with exercise and HDF. Successful completion of this clinical research will give important insights into exercise effect on factors responsible for enhanced toxin removal. The knowledge will give confidence for implementing, sustaining, and optimizing the exercise in routine dialysis care. We anticipate that toxin removal outcomes from intra-dialytic exercise session will be comparable to that obtained by standalone HDF. These results will encourage clinicians to combine HDF with intra-dialytic exercise for significantly enhanced toxin removal.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01674153.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Nephrology, Dialysis, Clinical trial, Effectiveness, Hemodialysis, Renal replacement therapy, Clinical research

166

Background/Aims: This study investigates the use of blood volume monitoring (BVM) markers for the assessment of fluid status. Methods: Predialysis fluid overload (FO) and BVM data were collected in 55 chronic hemodialysis patients in 317 treatments. Predialysis FO was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. The slope of the intravascular volume decrease over time normalized by ultrafiltration rate (Slope4h) was used as the primary BVM marker and compared against FO. Results: Average relative blood volume curves were well separated in different FO groups between 0 and 5 liters. Receiver-operating characteristics analysis revealed that the sensitivity of BVM was moderate in median FO ranges between 1 and 3 liters (AUC 0.60-0.65), slightly higher for volume depletion of FO <1 liter (AUC 0.7) and highest for excess fluid of FO >3 liters (AUC 0.85). Conclusion : Devices that monitor blood volume are well suited to detect high FO, but are not as sensitive at moderate or low levels of fluid status.

Concepts: Dialysis, Blood, Hemodialysis, Litre, Cubic metre, Hypovolemia, Aquapheresis, Hypervolemia

165

Vascular access problems are a daily occurrence in hemodialysis units. Loss of patency of the vascular access limits hemodialysis delivery and may result in underdialysis that leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Despite the known superiority of autogenous fistulae over grafts, autogenous fistulae also suffer from frequent development of stenosis and subsequent thrombosis. International guidelines recommend programmes for detection of stenosis and consequent correction in an attempt to reduce the rate of thrombosis. Physical examination of autogenous fistulae has recently been revisited as an important element in the assessment of stenotic lesions. Prospective observational studies have consistently demonstrated that physical examination performed by trained physicians is an accurate method for the diagnosis of fistula stenosis and, therefore, should be part of all surveillance protocols of the vascular access. However, to optimize hemodialysis access surveillance, hemodialysis practitioners may need to improve their skills in performing physical examination. The purpose of this article is to review the basics and drawbacks of physical examination for dialysis arteriovenous fistulae and to provide the reader with its diagnostic accuracy in the detection of arteriovenous fistula dysfunction, based on current published literature.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Renal replacement therapy, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Cimino fistula

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Home-based renal replacement therapy (RRT) [peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HHD)] offers independent quality of life and clinical advantages compared to conventional in-center hemodialysis. However, follow-up may be less complete for home dialysis patients following a change in care settings such as post hospitalization. We aim to implement a Home Dialysis Virtual Ward (HDVW) strategy, which is targeted to minimize gaps of care.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Nephrology, Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Peritoneum, Renal dialysis

163

Bixalomer (BXL) was developed to improve gastrointestinal symptoms and reduce constipation, relative to sevelamer hydrochloride, in hemodialysis patients. We prospectively evaluated the safety and effectiveness of switching maintenance dialysis patients from sevelamer hydrochloride to BXL.

Concepts: Nephrology, Dialysis, Effectiveness, Cellular respiration, Hemodialysis, Metabolic acidosis, Renal dialysis, Sevelamer

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Retrospective studies suggest that online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) may reduce the risk of mortality compared with standard hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial in which we assigned 906 chronic hemodialysis patients either to continue hemodialysis (n=450) or to switch to high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF (n=456). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes included cardiovascular mortality, all-cause hospitalization, treatment tolerability, and laboratory data. Compared with patients who continued on hemodialysis, those assigned to OL-HDF had a 30% lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.53-0.92; P=0.01), a 33% lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.44-1.02; P=0.06), and a 55% lower risk of infection-related mortality (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.96; P=0.03). The estimated number needed to treat suggested that switching eight patients from hemodialysis to OL-HDF may prevent one annual death. The incidence rates of dialysis sessions complicated by hypotension and of all-cause hospitalization were lower in patients assigned to OL-HDF. In conclusion, high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF reduces all-cause mortality compared with conventional hemodialysis.

Concepts: Dialysis, Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Randomized controlled trial, Hemodialysis, Renal replacement therapy, Outcome, Suggestion

29

Frequent hemodialysis requires using the vascular access more often than with conventional hemodialysis, but whether this increases the risk for access-related complications is unknown. In two separate trials, we randomly assigned 245 patients to receive in-center daily hemodialysis (6 days per week) or conventional hemodialysis (3 days per week) and 87 patients to receive home nocturnal hemodialysis (6 nights per week) or conventional hemodialysis, for 12 months. The primary vascular access outcome was time to first access event (repair, loss, or access-related hospitalization). Secondary outcomes were time to all repairs and time to all losses. In the Daily Trial, 77 (31%) of 245 patients had a primary outcome event: 33 repairs and 15 losses in the daily group and 17 repairs, 11 losses, and 1 hospitalization in the conventional group. Overall, the risk for a first access event was 76% higher with daily hemodialysis than with conventional hemodialysis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-2.79; P=0.017); among the 198 patients with an arteriovenous (AV) access at randomization, the risk was 90% higher with daily hemodialysis (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.11-3.25; P=0.02). Daily hemodialysis patients had significantly more total AV access repairs than conventional hemodialysis patients (P=0.011), with 55% of all repairs involving thrombectomy or surgical revision. Losses of AV access did not differ between groups (P=0.58). We observed similar trends in the Nocturnal Trial, although the results were not statistically significant. In conclusion, frequent hemodialysis increases the risk of vascular access complications. The nature of the AV access repairs suggests that this risk likely results from increased hemodialysis frequency rather than heightened surveillance.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Statistics, Hemodialysis, Confidence interval, Statistical hypothesis testing, Renal dialysis, Home hemodialysis, Northwest Kidney Centers

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Background The main objective of this study was to theoretically quantify the fluctuations of fluid volume excess for different modes of intermittent ultrafiltration schedules and to compare the prediction for the typical and asymmetric thrice-weekly schedule to clinical, physiological and biophysical markers of volume expansion in a group of stable haemodialysis patients. Methods Overall volume excess (V(OVE)) was described as the sum of a time-independent (V(0)) and a time-dependent component (V). An exact relationship was developed to relate V to variable treatment frequency, treatment spacing and net volume accumulation rate. In a single-centre haemodialysis population, body mass profiling was combined with volume state evaluation by bioimpedance analysis, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) levels, clinical signs, a volume questionnaire and blood pressure levels. Results In 23 patients following the typical thrice-weekly schedule, the time-averaged volume excess (V) during the whole week (1.1 ± 0.5 L) was significantly larger than that during the midweek interval (0.9 ± 0.4 L) (P < 0.002) by a factor comparable to that of 1.21 obtained from the theoretical analysis. V(OVE) was 1.3 ± 1.7 L and significantly related to pre- (P < 0.001) and post-dialysis levels of NT-pro BNP (P < 0.001). Conclusion Asymmetric treatment spacing such as with the typical thrice-weekly treatment schedule leads to a significant increase in time-averaged volume excess. The theoretical analysis allows for comparison of time-averaged volume excess in treatments varying with regard to treatment frequency and regularity and could be helpful to prescribe post-treatment volume (target weight) for such variable treatment modes.

Concepts: Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Ultrafiltration, Thermodynamics, Summation, Aquapheresis

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Background. The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). Methods. After a systematic review of the literature, a subgroup selected and reviewed the articles and summarized clinical and toxicokinetic data in order to propose structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. Following discussion, a second vote determined the final recommendations. Results. Twenty-four articles (1 randomized controlled trial, 1 observational study, 2 pharmacokinetic studies, and 20 case reports or case series) were identified, yielding an overall very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Clinical data on 135 patients and toxicokinetic data on 54 patients were analyzed. Twenty-three fatalities were reviewed. The workgroup agreed that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the mainstay of treatment, and that ECTR is not warranted in most cases of APAP poisoning. However, given that APAP is dialyzable, the workgroup agreed that ECTR is suggested in patients with excessively large overdoses who display features of mitochondrial dysfunction. This is reflected by early development of altered mental status and severe metabolic acidosis prior to the onset of hepatic failure. Specific recommendations for ECTR include an APAP concentration over 1000 mg/L if NAC is not administered (1D), signs of mitochondrial dysfunction and an APAP concentration over 700 mg/L (4630 mmol/L) if NAC is not administered (1D) and signs of mitochondrial dysfunction and an APAP concentration over 900 mg/L (5960 mmol/L) if NAC is administered (1D). Intermittent hemodialysis (HD) is the preferred ECTR modality in APAP poisoning (1D). Conclusion. APAP is amenable to extracorporeal removal. Due to the efficacy of NAC, ECTR is reserved for rare situations when the efficacy of NAC has not been definitively demonstrated.

Concepts: Dialysis, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Liver, Hemodialysis, Hemofiltration, Metabolic acidosis