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Concept: Hemangioma

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Vascular lesions such as hemangiomas and lymphangiomas can cause significant mortality and morbidity, as well as amblyopia when located in the orbit. Oral propranolol can regress infantile hemangioma during infancy and up to 23 months of age, but its effect on lymphangioma has not been demonstrated. We present two cases of lymphatic malformations treated with oral propranolol. Patient 1 is a 2-year-old boy with macrocystic bilateral cervical lymphangioma extending to the pharynx and larynx and microcystic lymphangioma of the tongue. The patient was started on propranolol 2 mg/kg/day starting at 17 months of age, and after 3 months only a very slight decrease in tongue volume was noted. Patient 2 is a 3.5-year-old boy with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of right facial complex lymphangioma with venous malformation. The patient was placed on oral propranolol 2 mg/kg/day. After 3 months of treatment, no change in the lesion was noted except for a transient decrease in the size of the conjunctival telangiectasia. Propranolol 2 mg/kg/day was not effective in treating lymphatic malformations in two children, both older than 17 months at the time of treatment.

Concepts: Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Congenital disorder, Amblyopia, Hemangioma, Congenital disorders, Dermal and subcutaneous growths, Lymphangioma

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Abstract Objectives: β-blocker propranolol was discovered to be highly effective for the treatment of IHs (infantile hemangiomas) since 2008. However, no serious side effects of its use have been reported so far in Asia, especially in China. To determine the safety of this therapy, we analyzed the side effects in 97 infants who used propranolol (2 mg· kg-1· d-1) against hemangioma from 2010 to 2011. Materials and methods: We performed routine blood and urine tests, hepatic and renal function tests, myocardial enzyme, electrolytes and blood sugar levels at baseline. Electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring was performed 48 h after administration of the first dose (2 mg· kg-1· d-1). Every patient (n = 97) was required to report to our hospital once a month. Results: The following adverse effects were observed: bronchial hyperactivity (n = 5), cyanosis and cold extremities (n = 1), agranulocytosis (n = 1), and low body temperature (n = 1). These side effects were reported for the first time in Asia. Conclusions: Although propranolol is effective against IHs, its potential side effects should be considered and appropriate monitoring performed. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the optimal dose and duration of propranolol treatment for large and complex hemangiomas.

Concepts: Therapeutic effect, Enzyme, Glucose, Renal function, Blood sugar, Electrolyte, Sugar, Hemangioma

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Cardiac hemangiomas represent 1 to 2% of all detected benign heart tumors. Tumors in the coronary sinus have been reported; however, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of masses in a persistent left superior vena cava. We report here the first case of a 58-year-old man with a rare huge unicamerate cardiac hemangiomas in a persistent left superior vena cava. A communication vein between the coronary sinus and hemangiomas could be identified, and thrombus formation was found in the hemangiomas as well.

Concepts: Heart, Report, Artery, Vein, Inferior vena cava, Superior vena cava, Hemangioma, Sinus venosus

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Hemangiomas are one of the most common vascular tumors in infancy. In most cases no therapy is necessary and spontaneous regression is observed; however, if they arise in the periocular region, immediate action is required as rapid growth frequently leads to obstruction of the visual field with the risk of developing amblyopia and orbital suppression up to permanent disfigurement and stigmatization of those affected. Novel pharmaceutical treatment options led to a significant paradigm shift in the treatment of pediatric hemangiomas.

Concepts: Medicine, Philosophy of science, Amblyopia, Hemangioma

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Hemangiomas are common cutaneous findings on healthy infants. These vascular malformations are generally benign, though in rare circumstances they can potentially be fatal. This is particularly true when the hemangiomas are large or numerous and occurring in visceral organs. Previously unrecognized visceral hemangiomas are part of the differential for any neonate presenting unexpectedly in shock.

Concepts: Organ, Amblyopia, Organs, Hemangioma

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Infantile haemangiomas are the most common vascular tumours of infancy. The vast majority of the lesions do not require dermatological treatment due to their unique clinical course and the high rate of spontaneous regression. Approximately 10-15% of the tumours result in severe complications and sequale, requiring special management and close follow-up.

Concepts: Management, Demographics, Hemangioma, Infantile haemangioma

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Oral propranolol has become first-line intervention for problematic infantile hemangioma (IH) that is not amenable to topical or intralesional therapies. Consensus data supporting its efficacy for other vascular anomalies does not exist. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and causes of propranolol use for vascular lesions other than IH.

Concepts: Wavelength, Hemangioma

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To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined oral and topical beta blockers for the treatment of superficial periocular infantile hemangioma at the early proliferative stage.

Concepts: Beta blocker, Hemangioma

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Propranolol has recently become the treatment of choice for management of subglottic and airway hemangiomas. This literature review aimed to determine the success rate of propranolol for managing these lesions as well as the rate of rebound growth following propranolol treatment cessation.

Concepts: Planning, Hemangioma