SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Healing

28

The present study was designed to determine the role of topical treatment with curcumin (Cur) on burn wound healing in rats. The Wistar-albino rats were randomly allotted into one of three experimental groups: 4th, 8th and 12th day (post burn) and all groups include subgroups which Burn and Burn + Cur. Each group contains 12 animals. Burn wounds were made on the back of rat and Cur was administered topically. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed and the wound tissues removed for analyse to biochemical and histopathological changes. There was a significant increase in the hydroxyproline levels in the skin of the Cur groups. Cur treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of inflammatory cells, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation and epithelialization which were also confirmed by histopathological and biochemical examinations. Our data also indicate that there is a rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in skin tissues of Cur-treated rats in the Burn group. The results clearly substantiate the beneficial effects of the topical application of Cur in the acceleration of wound healing.

Concepts: Scar, Wound healing, Collagen, Extracellular matrix, Healing, Medical emergencies, Injuries, Granulation tissue

28

Idiopathic avascular necrosis (AVN) of bone causes significant morbidity in adults although the pathophysiology is unknown. The present treatment options include systemic biphosphonate therapy and local bone drilling decompression, ameliorating the healing process and their by render the weight bearing femur head less vulnerable to collapse. In the present study we demonstrate the involvement of heparanase in AVN and in the acceptable treatments.

Concepts: Inflammation, Present, Healing, Heart, Femur, Avascular necrosis, 2006 albums, Femur head

28

Mammalian fetal skin regenerates perfectly, but adult skin repairs by the formation of scar tissue. The cause of this imperfect repair by adult skin is not understood. In contrast, wounded adult amphibian (urodeles and anurans) skin is like mammalian fetal skin in that it repairs by regeneration, not scarring. Scar-free wound repair in adult Xenopus is associated with expression of the paired homeobox transcription factor Prx1 by mesenchymal cells of the wound, a feature shared by mesenchymal cells of the regeneration blastema of the axolotl limb. Furthermore, mesenchymal cells of Xenopus skin wounds that harbor the mouse Prx1-limb-enhancer as a transgene exhibit activation of the enhancer despite the fact that they are Xenopus cells, suggesting that the mouse Prx1 enhancer possesses all elements required for its activation in skin wound healing, even though activation of the same enhancer in the mouse is not seen in the wounded skin of an adult mouse. Elucidation of the role of the Prx1 gene in amphibian skin wound healing will help to clarify the molecular mechanisms of scarless wound healing. Shifting the molecular mechanism of wound repair in mammals to that of amphibians, including reactivation of the Prx1-limb-enhancer, will be an important clue to stimulate scarless wound repair in mammalian adult skin. Finding or creating Prx1-positive stem cells in adult mammal skin by activating the Prx1-limb-enhancer may be a fast and reliable way to provide for scarless skin wound repair, and even directly lead to limb regeneration in mammals.

Concepts: Gene, Scar, Wound healing, Healing, Developmental biology, Skin, Wound, Salamander

28

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) as compared to standard of care on wound healing in high-risk patients with multiple significant co-morbidities and chronic lower extremity ulcers (LEUs) across a continuum of care settings. A retrospective cohort study of ‘real world’ high-risk patients was conducted using Boston University Medical Center electronic medical records, along with chart abstraction to capture detailed medical history, co-morbidities, healing outcomes and ulcer characteristics. A total of 342 patients, 171 NPWT patients with LEUs were matched with 171 non NPWT patients by age and gender, are included in this cohort from 2002 to 2010. The hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated in COX proportional hazard models after adjusted for potential confounders. NPWT patients were 2·63 times (95% CI = 1·87-3·70) more likely to achieve wound closure compared to non NPWT patients. Moreover, incidence of wound closure in NPWT patients were increased in diabetic ulcers (HR = 3·26, 95% CI = 2·21-4·83), arterial ulcers (HR = 2·27, CI = 1·56-3·78) and venous ulcers (HR = 6·31, 95% CI = 1·49-26·6) compared to non NPWT patients. Additionally, wound healing appears to be positively affected by timing of NPWT application. Compared to later NPWT users (1 year or later after ulcer onset), early NPWT users (within 3 months after ulcer onset) and intermediate NPWT users (4-12 months after ulcer onset) were 3·38 and 2·18 times more likely to achieve wound healing, respectively. Our study showed that despite the greater significant co-morbidities, patients with NPWT treatment healed faster. Early use of NPWT demonstrated better healing. The longer the interval before intervention is with NPWT, the higher the correlation is with poor outcome.

Concepts: Cohort study, Proportional hazards models, Scar, Wound healing, Healing, Chronic wound, Diabetic foot, Negative pressure wound therapy

27

Birch bark has a long lasting history as a traditional medicinal remedy to accelerate wound healing. Recently, the efficacy of birch bark preparations has also been proven clinically. As active principle pentacyclic triterpenes are generally accepted. Here, we report a comprehensive study on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the wound healing properties of a well-defined birch bark preparation named as TE (triterpene extract) as well as the isolated single triterpenes in human primary keratinocytes and porcine ex-vivo wound healing models.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Scar, Wound healing, Healing, Pharmaceutical drug, Birch bark

27

The healing of grafted areas after surgical treatment of deep burns frequently generates mutilating scars, and rises the risk of subsequent scar hypertrophy. Scar assessment based on clinical evaluation is inherently subjective, which stimulates search for objective means of evaluation.

Concepts: Scar, Wound healing, Collagen, Healing, Evaluation, Acne vulgaris, FN SCAR

27

While the importance of oxygen to the wound healing process is well accepted, research and technological advances continue in this field and efforts are ongoing to further utilize oxygen as a therapeutic modality. In this paper, the authors briefly review the role of oxygen in wound healing and discuss the distinct mechanism of action as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the three major oxygen-based therapies currently in clinical use (Hyperbaric Oxygen and Topical Oxygen and Continuous Diffusion of Oxygen), as well as review the existing literature regarding these distinct therapeutic modalities.

Concepts: Oxygen, Scar, Wound healing, Healing, Diving medicine, Hyperbaric medicine, Modality, Oxygen toxicity

27

Fibronectin is an adhesive molecule that plays a crucial role in wound healing, particularly in extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and also in reepithelialisation. Fibronectin plays many different roles in the wound healing process because of the presence of specific function domains and binding sites in its structure. Fibronectin interacts with different cell types, cytokines and the ECM. The main role of fibronectin is ECM formation. First, plasma fibronectin forms a provisional fibrin-fibronectin matrix, which will later be replaced by the mature ECM-containing tissue fibronectin.

Concepts: Wound healing, Extracellular matrix, Healing, Fibronectin

27

Abstract Background: Secondary lymphedema is a life-long disease of painful tissue swelling that often follows axillary lymph node dissection to treat breast cancer. It is hypothesized that poor lymphatic regeneration across the obstructive scar tissue during the wound healing process may predispose the tissue to swell at a later date. Treatment for lymphedema remains suboptimal and is in most cases palliative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of Lymphomyosot to treat tissue swelling and promote lymphangiogenesis in experimental models of murine lymphedema. Methods: Experimental models of mouse lymphedema were injected with varied amounts of Lymphomyosot and saline as control. Measurements of tail swelling and wound closure were taken and compared amongst the groups. Three separate groups of mice were analyzed for lymphatic capillary migration, lymphatic vessel regeneration, and macrophage recruitment. Results: Lymphomyosot significantly reduced swelling and increased the rate of surgical wound closure. Lymphomyosot did not increase the migration of lymph capillaries in a mouse tail skin regeneration model or regeneration of lymph vessels following murine axillary lymph node dissection. Conclusions: Lymphomyosot may act through inflammatory and wound repair pathways to reduce experimental lymphedema. Its ability to regulate inflammation as well as assist in tissue repair and extracellular formation may allow for the production of a scar-free matrix bridge through which migrating cells and accumulated interstitial fluid can freely spread.

Concepts: Scar, Wound healing, Extracellular matrix, Healing, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Lymph, Lymph vessel

27

Medically relevant biofilms have gained a significant level of interest, in part because of the epidemic rise in obesity and an aging population in the developed world. The associated comorbidities of chronic wounds such as pressure ulcers, venous leg ulcers, and diabetic foot wounds remain recalcitrant to the therapies available currently. Development of chronicity in the wound is due primarily to an inability to complete the wound healing process owing to the presence of a bioburden, specifically bacterial biofilms. New therapies are clearly needed which specifically target biofilms. Lactoferrin is a multifaceted molecule of the innate immune system found primarily in milk. While further investigation is warranted to elucidate mechanisms of action, in vitro analyses of lactoferrin and its derivatives have demonstrated that these complex molecules are structurally and functionally well suited to address the heterogeneity of bacterial biofilms. In addition, use of lactoferrin and its derivatives has proven promising in the clinic.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Wound healing, Healing, Innate immune system, Infection, Wound, Chronic wound