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Concept: Head and neck

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BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal cancers are increasingly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Little is known about the experience of patients receiving this diagnosis. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with ten survivors of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. The interviews were transcribed, and recurring themes were identified. RESULTS: Physicians were a trusted source of information regarding HPV. Framing the diagnosis in terms of prognosis resonated with patients. The uncertainty about transmission, latency, and communicability colored the dialogue about HPV. Despite some understanding of prevalence and transmission, patients worried about their partner’s risk. Patients sought information about HPV on the Internet, but it was not easily navigable. Emotional reactions to the diagnosis remained mostly cancer-centric rather than HPV-centric. A patient-education handout was developed in response to patient questions. CONCLUSIONS: Additional educational resources explaining the facts about HPV in HNSCC in a consistent way including content of highest priority to patients may improve understanding of HPV. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2012.

Concepts: Anal cancer, Head and neck, Physician, Head and neck anatomy, Lung cancer, Head and neck cancer, Cancer, Human papillomavirus

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Embozene® is a new neuroembolizing microsphere used to reduce intraoperative bleeding for head and neck tumours. We report a case of iatrogenic ophthalmic artery occlusion after Embozene® embolization of the external carotid artery (ECA).

Concepts: Ophthalmic artery, Head and neck, Head and neck anatomy, External carotid artery, Arteries of the head and neck, Internal carotid artery, Common carotid artery

130

Poor oral hygiene has been proposed to contribute to head and neck cancer (HNC) risk although causality and independency of some indicators are uncertain. This study investigates the relationship of five oral hygiene indicators with incident HNCs.

Concepts: Head and neck, Head and neck anatomy

49

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common disorder with protean manifestations in the head and neck. In this retrospective study, we report the efficacy of a wholly dietary approach using alkaline water, a plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet, and standard reflux precautions compared with that of the traditional treatment approach of proton pump inhibition (PPI) and standard reflux precautions.

Concepts: Diet, Atom, Human, Head and neck, Chemistry, Head and neck anatomy, Protein, Water

29

We evaluated factors associated with long-term dependence on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes.

Concepts: The Tubes, Head and neck, Head and neck anatomy, Enteral feeding, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

29

A branchial cleft cyst (BCC) commonly presents as a solitary, painless mass in the neck of a child or young adult. They are most commonly located along the anterior border and the upper third of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the anterior triangle of the neck. It is very rare for a BCC to manifest in other locations, especially in the posterior triangle of the neck. BCCs are believed to be derived from the branchial apparatus, mostly from the second branchial arch, although many theories have been proposed to explain the aetiology of BCCs. It is possible for BCCs to be easily misdiagnosed as other swellings of oral or paraoral origin owing to their location. Intraoral lymphoepithelial cysts have also been reported in the literature. It is imperative that clinicians make an accurate diagnosis so that appropriate treatment can be performed. If the cysts are excised properly, recurrence is rare. A rare case report of BCC arising in the neck from an unusual location with components in the posterior triangle is presented here.

Concepts: Report, Sternocleidomastoid muscle, Muscular system, Cyst, Scientific method, Posterior triangle of the neck, Pharyngeal arch, Head and neck

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The voice impact of treatment for nonlaryngeal head and neck primary sites remains unknown.

Concepts: Head and neck cancer, Head and neck, Head and neck anatomy

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Cancer and its treatments are associated with psychological distress that can negatively impact self-perception, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Patients with head and neck cancers (HNC) are particularly susceptible to psychological distress. This study involved a cross-validation of the Measure of Body Apperception (MBA) for HNC patients.

Concepts: Life, Cancer, Scientific method, Cancer research, Head and neck, Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck cancer, Oncology

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PURPOSE: The incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) is increasing, and treatment advances have contributed to improvements in survival. However, a growing number of HNC survivors now live with the long-term consequences of cancer treatment, in particular, problems with eating. The combined effects of HNC cancer, intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have a profound impact on functional, psychological, social and physical aspects of eating. Evidence is needed to underpin new rehabilitation approaches to address these complex problems. This review aimed to identify and summarise the evidence for rehabilitation interventions aimed at alleviating eating problems after HNC treatment. METHODS: A systematic review of studies indexed in Medline, CinAHL and PsycINFO using search terms relevant to a wide range of aspects of eating. Publications reporting empirical findings regarding physical, functional and/or psychosocial factors were included. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies were identified. Fifteen focussed on swallowing exercises, eight on interventions to improve jaw mobility and four on swallowing and jaw exercises. None included interventions to address the complex combination of functional, physical and psychological problems associated with eating in this patient group. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights that, whilst there is some evidence to support interventions aimed at improving swallowing and jaw mobility following treatment for HNC, studies are limited by their size and scope. Larger, high quality studies, which include patient-reported outcome measures, are required to underpin the development of patient-centred rehabilitation programmes. There is also a particular need to develop and evaluate interventions, which address the psychological and/or social aspects of eating.

Concepts: Radiation therapy, Problem solving, Head and neck anatomy, Chemotherapy, Head and neck cancer, Head and neck, Improve, Better