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Concept: Head and neck anatomy

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Background Patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck after platinum chemotherapy have a very poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Nivolumab, an anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody, was assessed as treatment for this condition. Methods In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial, we assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, 361 patients with recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck whose disease had progressed within 6 months after platinum-based chemotherapy to receive nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight) every 2 weeks or standard, single-agent systemic therapy (methotrexate, docetaxel, or cetuximab). The primary end point was overall survival. Additional end points included progression-free survival, rate of objective response, safety, and patient-reported quality of life. Results The median overall survival was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5 to 9.1) in the nivolumab group versus 5.1 months (95% CI, 4.0 to 6.0) in the group that received standard therapy. Overall survival was significantly longer with nivolumab than with standard therapy (hazard ratio for death, 0.70; 97.73% CI, 0.51 to 0.96; P=0.01), and the estimates of the 1-year survival rate were approximately 19 percentage points higher with nivolumab than with standard therapy (36.0% vs. 16.6%). The median progression-free survival was 2.0 months (95% CI, 1.9 to 2.1) with nivolumab versus 2.3 months (95% CI, 1.9 to 3.1) with standard therapy (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.13; P=0.32). The rate of progression-free survival at 6 months was 19.7% with nivolumab versus 9.9% with standard therapy. The response rate was 13.3% in the nivolumab group versus 5.8% in the standard-therapy group. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 13.1% of the patients in the nivolumab group versus 35.1% of those in the standard-therapy group. Physical, role, and social functioning was stable in the nivolumab group, whereas it was meaningfully worse in the standard-therapy group. Conclusions Among patients with platinum-refractory, recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck, treatment with nivolumab resulted in longer overall survival than treatment with standard, single-agent therapy. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 141 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105636 .).

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Cancer, Lung cancer, Chemotherapy, Normal distribution, Head and neck cancer, Paclitaxel, Bristol-Myers Squibb

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BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal cancers are increasingly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Little is known about the experience of patients receiving this diagnosis. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with ten survivors of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. The interviews were transcribed, and recurring themes were identified. RESULTS: Physicians were a trusted source of information regarding HPV. Framing the diagnosis in terms of prognosis resonated with patients. The uncertainty about transmission, latency, and communicability colored the dialogue about HPV. Despite some understanding of prevalence and transmission, patients worried about their partner’s risk. Patients sought information about HPV on the Internet, but it was not easily navigable. Emotional reactions to the diagnosis remained mostly cancer-centric rather than HPV-centric. A patient-education handout was developed in response to patient questions. CONCLUSIONS: Additional educational resources explaining the facts about HPV in HNSCC in a consistent way including content of highest priority to patients may improve understanding of HPV. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2012.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Cancer, Human papillomavirus, Lung cancer, Physician, Anal cancer, Head and neck cancer

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BACKGROUND: Educational computer games are examples of computer-assisted learning objects, representing an educational strategy of growing interest. Given the changes in the digital world over the last decades, students of the current generation expect technology to be used in advancing their learning requiring a need to change traditional passive learning methodologies to an active multisensory experimental learning methodology. The objective of this study was to compare a computer game-based learning method with a traditional learning method, regarding learning gains and knowledge retention, as means of teaching head and neck Anatomy and Physiology to Speech-Language and Hearing pathology undergraduate students. METHODS: Students were randomized to participate to one of the learning methods and the data analyst was blinded to which method of learning the students had received. Students' prior knowledge (i.e. before undergoing the learning method), short-term knowledge retention and long-term knowledge retention (i.e. six months after undergoing the learning method) were assessed with a multiple choice questionnaire. Students' performance was compared considering the three moments of assessment for both for the mean total score and for separated mean scores for Anatomy questions and for Physiology questions. RESULTS: Students that received the game-based method performed better in the pos-test assessment only when considering the Anatomy questions section. Students that received the traditional lecture performed better in both post-test and long-term post-test when considering the Anatomy and Physiology questions. CONCLUSIONS: The game-based learning method is comparable to the traditional learning method in general and in short-term gains, while the traditional lecture still seems to be more effective to improve students' short and long-term knowledge retention.

Concepts: Scientific method, Head and neck anatomy, Biology, Education, Anatomy, Learning, Human anatomy, Methodology

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Embozene® is a new neuroembolizing microsphere used to reduce intraoperative bleeding for head and neck tumours. We report a case of iatrogenic ophthalmic artery occlusion after Embozene® embolization of the external carotid artery (ECA).

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Internal carotid artery, Common carotid artery, External carotid artery, Arteries of the head and neck, Ophthalmic artery

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Innate immunity is a key component in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis, a universal toxicity of chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Dusquetide, a novel Innate Defense Regulator, has demonstrated both nonclinical and clinical efficacy in ameliorating severe oral mucositis (SOM). Long term follow-up studies from the Phase 2 clinical study evaluating dusquetide as a treatment for SOM in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving CRT have now been completed. Extended analysis indicates that dusquetide therapy was well-tolerated and did not contribute to increased infection, tumor growth or mortality. Potential ancillary benefits of duquetide therapy were also identified.

Concepts: Immune system, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Head and neck anatomy, Oncology, Innate immune system, The Canon of Medicine, Chemotherapy

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Poor oral hygiene has been proposed to contribute to head and neck cancer (HNC) risk although causality and independency of some indicators are uncertain. This study investigates the relationship of five oral hygiene indicators with incident HNCs.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck

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Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common disorder with protean manifestations in the head and neck. In this retrospective study, we report the efficacy of a wholly dietary approach using alkaline water, a plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet, and standard reflux precautions compared with that of the traditional treatment approach of proton pump inhibition (PPI) and standard reflux precautions.

Concepts: Protein, Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Human, Water, Chemistry, Atom, Diet

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American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk.

Concepts: Medicine, Head and neck anatomy, High school, Youth, American football, Touchback, National Football League, High school football

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The voice impact of treatment for nonlaryngeal head and neck primary sites remains unknown.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Head and neck cancer