SciCombinator

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Concept: Harvest

179

The global demand for biomass for food, feed, biofuels, and chemical production is expected to increase in the coming decades. Microalgae are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops. Production of microalgae has so far been limited to high-value applications. In order to realize large-scale production of microalgae biomass for low-value applications, new low-cost technologies are needed to produce and process microalgae. A major challenge lies in the harvesting of the microalgae, which requires the separation of a low amount of biomass consisting of small individual cells from a large volume of culture medium. Flocculation is seen as a promising low-cost harvesting method. Here, we overview the challenges and possible solutions for flocculating microalgae.

Concepts: Agriculture, Harvest, Separation of church and state, Separation process, Biomass, Separation processes, Flocculation, Crop

64

In recent years, several extreme weather disasters have partially or completely damaged regional crop production. While detailed regional accounts of the effects of extreme weather disasters exist, the global scale effects of droughts, floods and extreme temperature on crop production are yet to be quantified. Here we estimate for the first time, to our knowledge, national cereal production losses across the globe resulting from reported extreme weather disasters during 1964-2007. We show that droughts and extreme heat significantly reduced national cereal production by 9-10%, whereas our analysis could not identify an effect from floods and extreme cold in the national data. Analysing the underlying processes, we find that production losses due to droughts were associated with a reduction in both harvested area and yields, whereas extreme heat mainly decreased cereal yields. Furthermore, the results highlight ~7% greater production damage from more recent droughts and 8-11% more damage in developed countries than in developing ones. Our findings may help to guide agricultural priorities in international disaster risk reduction and adaptation efforts.

Concepts: Weather, Temperature, Harvest, Disaster, Global warming, Development, Extreme weather, Weather hazards

39

Honey bees provide critical pollination services for many agricultural crops. While the contribution of pesticides to current hive loss rates is debated, remarkably little is known regarding the magnitude of risk to bees and mechanisms of exposure during pollination. Here, we show that pesticide risk in recently accumulated beebread was above regulatory agency levels of concern for acute or chronic exposure at 5 and 22 of the 30 apple orchards, respectively, where we placed 120 experimental hives. Landscape context strongly predicted focal crop pollen foraging and total pesticide residues, which were dominated by fungicides. Yet focal crop pollen foraging was a poor predictor of pesticide risk, which was driven primarily by insecticides. Instead, risk was positively related to diversity of non-focal crop pollen sources. Furthermore, over 60% of pesticide risk was attributed to pesticides that were not sprayed during the apple bloom period. These results suggest the majority of pesticide risk to honey bees providing pollination services came from residues in non-focal crop pollen, likely contaminated wildflowers or other sources. We suggest a greater understanding of the specific mechanisms of non-focal crop pesticide exposure is essential for minimizing risk to bees and improving the sustainability of grower pest management programs.

Concepts: Agriculture, Insect, Harvest, Pesticide, Flower, Insecticide, Crops, Crop

32

Global food demand is increasing rapidly, as are the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. Here, we project global demand for crop production in 2050 and evaluate the environmental impacts of alternative ways that this demand might be met. We find that per capita demand for crops, when measured as caloric or protein content of all crops combined, has been a similarly increasing function of per capita real income since 1960. This relationship forecasts a 100-110% increase in global crop demand from 2005 to 2050. Quantitative assessments show that the environmental impacts of meeting this demand depend on how global agriculture expands. If current trends of greater agricultural intensification in richer nations and greater land clearing (extensification) in poorer nations were to continue, ~1 billion ha of land would be cleared globally by 2050, with CO(2)-C equivalent greenhouse gas emissions reaching ~3 Gt y(-1) and N use ~250 Mt y(-1) by then. In contrast, if 2050 crop demand was met by moderate intensification focused on existing croplands of underyielding nations, adaptation and transfer of high-yielding technologies to these croplands, and global technological improvements, our analyses forecast land clearing of only ~0.2 billion ha, greenhouse gas emissions of ~1 Gt y(-1), and global N use of ~225 Mt y(-1). Efficient management practices could substantially lower nitrogen use. Attainment of high yields on existing croplands of underyielding nations is of great importance if global crop demand is to be met with minimal environmental impacts.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Agriculture, Function, Nitrogen, Harvest, Natural gas, Greenhouse gas, Crop

28

The hamstring tendons, gracilis and semitendinosus are widely used in ligament and reconstructive surgery. Their accessory bands or insertions are technical pitfalls during harvesting.

Concepts: Skeletal system, Harvest, Reconstructive surgery, Ligament, Tendon, Hamstring

28

This study investigated the fucoxanthin content of New Zealand (NZ) Undaria pinnatifida harvested from two locations in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand across its growing season. Fucoxanthin content and antioxidant properties of processed New Zealand U. pinnatifida and commercial wakame from Japan and Korea were further compared. Results showed that U. pinnatifida harvested from Port Underwood had higher fucoxanthin content in the blade compared to Pelorus Sound. The sporophyll also contained a significant amount of fucoxanthin throughout the harvest season, although lower than in the blade. Two antioxidant measurement methods, DPPH and CUPRAC, were utilised to measure antioxidant activities. Processed NZ U. pinnatifida had a lower fucoxanthin content and antioxidant activity than freeze-dried Undaria. Fucoxanthin content and antioxidant activities of NZ processed U. pinnatifida were not significantly different from other commercial samples from Japan and Korea. In conclusion, U. pinnatifida in New Zealand has a great potential to be a food and nutraceutical resource.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Harvest, New Zealand, Viticulture, Marlborough, New Zealand, Pelorus Sound, Alariaceae, Kenepuru Sound

28

Roots of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida cultivated for four years in a North European climate were analyzed for seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic constituents (alkamides, ketoalkenes- and alkynes) and phenolic acids by harvesting five times during one year to establish the optimal time for harvest. A total of 16 alkamides, two ketoalkenes, two ketoalkynes, and four phenolic acids (echinacoside, cichoric acid, caftaric acid, and chlorogenic acid) were identified in aqueous ethanolic (70%) extracts by LC-MS and quantified by RP-HPLC. The major alkamides in the roots of E. purpurea were at their lowest concentration in the middle of autumn and early winter and the total concentration of lipophilic compounds in E. pallida showed the same pattern. Moreover, all the major phenolic acids in E. purpurea were at their highest concentrations in spring. Optimal harvest time in spring is in contrast to normal growing guidelines and hence, this specific information of seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic and phenolic compounds in E. purpurea and E. pallida is valuable for research, farmers, and producers of medicinal preparations.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemical properties, Harvest, Echinacea, Caffeic acid, Cichoric acid, Phenols

28

PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the volume of bone graft material that can be safely harvested from the mandibular symphysis and rami using a computer-aided design (CAD) software program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative computerized tomography scans from 40 patients undergoing bone augmentation procedures were analyzed. Symphysis and rami cross sections were mapped using a CAD software program (AutoCAD®, Autodesk, Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) to evaluate the bone volume that can be safely harvested. CAD calculations were contrasted to intrasurgical measurements in a subgroup of 20 individuals. RESULTS: CAD calculations yielded a safe harvestable osseous volume of 1.44 cm(3)  ± 0.49 for the symphysis and 0.82 cm(3)  ± 0.21 for each ramus (p < .0001, confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.47-0.78). These measurements were significantly lower (p < .0001) than the bone volumes harvested intrasurgically for both symphysis and ramus, respectively (2.40 cm(3)  ± 0.50 vs. 2.65 cm(3)  ± 0.45). CAD calculations of harvestable symphysis and ramus bone translated into an average of 2.40 cm(3)  ± 0.50 (range: 1.80-3.10 cm(3) ) and 2.65 cm(3)  ± 0.45 (range: 1.90-3.50) of particulate bone graft intrasurgically, respectively. Ramus cortical was significantly thicker than the symphysis cortical, 2.9 ± 0.4 mm versus 2.19 mm ± 0.4 mm (p < .0001, CI 95%: 0.45-1.03). CONCLUSION: The symphysis and rami are good harvesting sources to obtain dense corticocancellous bone. The significant volumetric CAD differences between the symphysis and ramus seem to balance out intrasurgically and may be due to the greater cortical bone volume at the ramus area. It is plausible to harvest an average of 7.70 cm(3) from the symphysis and rami alone. The use of a CAD software program can enhance surgical treatment planning prior to bone transplantation.

Concepts: Bone, Harvest, Computer, Computer-aided design, Artificial bone, Bone grafting, AutoCAD, Computer-aided engineering

27

Given that harvesting time has a great impact on the quality of herbal medicine, knowing the ontogenesis in the chemical profile aspect is essential to determine the optimal harvesting season. A high-throughput and versatile approach (herbal infrared macro-fingerprinting) harmonizing with the character of herbal medicine and providing the whole chemical profile (entirety), group analogues (part), and single compounds (major components) is developed to rapidly disclose the variation rule of the full chemical profile of herbal medicine over a growing season without extraction pretreatments, and thus to determine the optimal harvesting period in respect to groups of chemical compounds using Scutellaria baicalensis as a demonstration. IR macro-fingerprints of Scutellaria baicalensis harvested in the same period have a high similarity (> 0.91) despite small variations, suggesting that IR macro-fingerprinting can faithfully reflect the spectacle of “disordered order” in nature. From Year-1 spring to Year-3 autumn, general contents (%, w/w) of total flavonoids fluctuate up and down with a maximum value in Year-2 spring, and that of saccharides is relatively stable except for the attenuation from Year-2 autumn to Year-3 spring. From Year-1 autumn to Year-2 spring, flavonoid aglycones initially produced in Scutellaria baicalensis are extensively transformed to responding flavonoid glycosides. From Year-2 spring to Year-3 autumn, flavonoid glycosides are converted back to their corresponding aglycones. The best seasons for collecting Scutellaria baicalensis with a high content of flavonoid glycosides and aglycones would be Year-2 spring and Year-3 spring, respectively.

Concepts: Harvest, Chemical compound, Season, Flavonoid, Glycoside, Infrared, Viticulture, Scutellaria baicalensis

27

Bisphenol A has been widely used in plastic containers and this has raised safety concerns for fetuses, infants, and young children. Aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, and patulin are among the most toxic regulated mycotoxins found as contaminants in agricultural crops and animal products. To facilitate the analysis of these chemicals for regulatory purposes, we have developed an analytical method enabling their simultaneous detection in beverages and food products.

Concepts: Fungus, Aflatoxin, Mycotoxin, Bisphenol A, Harvest, Aspergillus, Ochratoxin, Mycotoxins