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Concept: Halitosis

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BACKGROUND: Dental caries among young children are a global problem. Scant attention is paid towards primary teeth, leading to high prevalence of dental caries. There are only few studies done in Sri Lanka, addressing oral hygiene among preschool children. Scientific evidence is in need to persuade authorities to establish a programme promoting oral hygiene among preschool children. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Ragama Medical officer of Health area. Consecutive children between 2 – 5 years of age, attending child welfare clinics were recruited for the study. Practices related to dental hygiene and socio-economic characteristics were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Mouth was examined for evidence of dental caries. Data collection and examination were done by two doctors who were trained for this purpose. The data were analysed using SSPS version 16. RESULTS: Total of 410 children were included. None had a routine visits to a dentist. Practices related to tooth brushing were satisfactory. Prevalence of dental caries gradually increased with age to reach 68.8% by 5 years. Mean total decayed-extracted-filled (deft) score for the whole sample was 1.41 and Significant caries index (SIC) was 4.09. Decayed tooth were the main contributor for the deft score and Care index was only 1.55. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of caries than boys. CONCLUSIONS: Dental care provided for Sri Lankan preschool children appears to be unsatisfactory as prevalence of dental caries among this cohort of preschool children was very high. There is an urgent need to improve dental care facilities for Sri Lankan preschool children.

Concepts: Teeth, Dental caries, Sri Lanka, Dental plaque, Oral hygiene, Dental floss, Halitosis, Toothbrush

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The association between periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACVD) has been established in some modestly sized studies (<10 000). Rarely, however, periodontitis has been studied directly; often tooth loss or self-reported periodontitis has been used as a proxy measure for periodontitis. Our aim is to investigate the adjusted association between periodontitis and ACVD among all individuals registered in a large dental school in the Netherlands (Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)).

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Cardiovascular disease, Netherlands, Dentistry, Oral hygiene, Halitosis, Amsterdam, The Hague

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Objectives. We sought to determine Maryland adults' knowledge, understanding, opinions, and practices with respect to prevention and early detection of dental caries. Methods. We conducted a statewide random-digit-dialing, computer-assisted telephone survey in 2010 among 770 adults who had a child aged 6 years or younger living in their home. A traditional random-digit sample and a targeted low-income sample were included. Analyses included frequencies, percentages, the χ(2) test, and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents' overall level of knowledge about preventing dental caries was low. Those with higher levels of education were more likely to have correct information regarding prevention and early detection of dental caries. Nearly all respondents (97.9%) reported that they were aware of fluoride, but only 57.8% knew its purpose. More than one third (35.1%) of the respondents were not aware of dental sealants. Those with lower levels of education were significantly less likely to drink tap water, as were their children, and significantly less likely to have had a dental appointment in the preceding past 12 months. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the need to increase oral health literacy regarding caries prevention and early detection. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 18, 2013: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301038).

Concepts: Dental caries, Dental implant, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Dental sealant, Preventive medicine, Halitosis, Pierre Fauchard

25

BackgroundBreath odor is a nuisance problem for many people around the world. Bad breath affects social interactions of people in daily life by causing personal discomfort and emotional stress. There are chemical and mechanical methods for controlling oral malodor. Many studies of various mouth rinse applications and tongue cleaning procedures have been conducted. However, few studies have compared the effect of simultaneous chemical and mechanical procedures on the reduction of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in subjects with oral malodor. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of different oral hygiene procedures on reduction of VSCs in subjects with oral malodor.MethodsThirty male volunteers who matched with study criteria were divided randomly into two groups. Both groups performed tooth brushing, mouth washing with chlorine dioxide, tongue cleaning and combination of those in different sequence for five weeks. Total VSCs of subjects were measured with a Breathtron®, and oral health status was also examined. Quantitative analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 16.0).ResultsThere were no significant differences in oral health status between the two groups at the baseline. No significant decrease in oral malodor was detected after one week of tooth brushing. Significant reductions in VSCs were shown by adding mouthwash or tongue cleaning to tooth brushing from the second week to fourth week (P <0.01). The greatest reduction in VSCs was found at the fifth week after the practice of all three oral hygiene regimens.ConclusionsTooth brushing alone does not significantly reduce oral malodor. Mouth washing and tongue cleaning significantly reduce oral malodor, but combining tooth brushing, mouth washing and tongue cleaning regimens is most effective for oral malodor reduction. The results of this study could contribute to the formulation of appropriate preventive strategies against oral malodor not only for the general public but also for dental professionals serving as oral malodor-related service providers.Trial registrationRegistration number - ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02113137. Registration date ¿ April 7th, 2014.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Effectiveness, Hygiene, Oral hygiene, Mouthwash, Halitosis, Cleanliness, Tongue cleaner

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Oral disease can have a significant impact on the health and wellbeing of the housebound patient. The aetiology of oral conditions such as dental caries and periodontal disease have been well investigated and there is a solid evidence base in how to best prevent their progress. The Department of Health document Delivering better oral health: an evidence-based toolkit for prevention is a valuable resource that outlines the current best preventative evidence in the form of practical advice for clinicians and patients. This article aims to distil and present this advice for the benefit of community nurses. It will identify areas of particular importance for people with additional needs, particularly the elderly and infirm. Outlining how to best tailor preventative advice and treatment for this patient group.

Concepts: Health care provider, Medicine, The Canon of Medicine, Illness, Dental caries, Periodontitis, Dentistry, Halitosis

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Despite the wealth of evidence that oral health is related to physical health, Medicare explicitly excludes dental care from coverage, leaving beneficiaries at risk for tooth decay and periodontal disease and exposed to high out-of-pocket spending. To profile these risks, we examined access to dental care across income groups and types of insurance coverage in 2012. High-income beneficiaries were almost three times as likely to have received dental care in the previous twelve months, compared to low-income beneficiaries-74 percent of whom received no dental care. We also describe two illustrative policies that would expand access, in part by providing income-related subsidies. One would offer a voluntary, premium-financed benefit similar to those offered by Part D prescription drug plans, with an estimated premium of $29 per month. The other would cover basic dental care in core Medicare Part B benefits, financed in part by premiums ($7 or $15 per month, depending on whether premiums covered 25 percent or 50 percent of the cost) and in part by general revenues. The fact that beneficiaries are forgoing dental care and are exposed to significant costs if they seek care underscores the need for action. The policies offer pathways for improving health and financial independence for older adults.

Concepts: Health care, Pharmacology, Periodontitis, Dentistry, Insurance, Finance, Oral hygiene, Halitosis

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Prevention reduces tooth loss, but little evidence supports biannual preventive care for all adults. We used risk-based approaches to test tooth loss association with 1 vs. 2 annual preventive visits in high-risk (HiR) and low-risk (LoR) patients. Insurance claims for 16 years for 5,117 adults were evaluated retrospectively for tooth extraction events. Patients were classified as HiR for progressive periodontitis if they had ≥ 1 of the risk factors (RFs) smoking, diabetes, interleukin-1 genotype; or as LoR if no RFs. LoR event rates were 13.8% and 16.4% for 2 or 1 annual preventive visits (absolute risk reduction, 2.6%; 95%CI, 0.5% to 5.8%; p = .092). HiR event rates were 16.9% and 22.1% for 2 and 1 preventive visits (absolute risk reduction, 5.2%; 95%CI, 1.8% to 8.4%; p = .002). Increasing RFs increased events (p < .001). Oral health care costs were not increased by any single RF, regardless of prevention frequency (p > .41), but multiple RFs increased costs vs. no (p < .001) or 1 RF (p = .001). For LoR individuals, the association between preventive dental visits and tooth loss was not significantly different whether the frequency was once or twice annually. A personalized medicine approach combining gene biomarkers with conventional risk factors to stratify populations may be useful in resource allocation for preventive dentistry (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01584479).

Concepts: Dental implant, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Halitosis

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The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry.

Concepts: Saliva, Nutrition, Exercise, Dental caries, Dental implant, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Halitosis

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To explore the association between frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and caries increment over four years in adults. A second aim was to explore whether the association between frequency of SSB consumption and caries increment varied by socio-demographic characteristics and use of fluoride toothpaste.

Concepts: The Association, Lactic acid, Dental caries, Oral hygiene, Fluoride therapy, Toothpaste, Mouthwash, Halitosis

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The numerous species that make up the oral microbiome are now understood to play a key role in establishment and maintenance of oral health. The ability to taxonomically identify community members at the species level is important to elucidating its diversity and association to health and disease. We report the overall ecological effects of using a toothpaste containing enzymes and proteins compared to a control toothpaste on the plaque microbiome. The results reported here demonstrate that a toothpaste containing enzymes and proteins can augment natural salivary defences to promote an overall community shift resulting in an increase in bacteria associated with gum health and a concomitant decrease in those associated with periodontal disease. Statistical analysis shows significant increases in 12 taxa associated with gum health including Neisseria spp. and a significant decrease in 10 taxa associated with periodontal disease including Treponema spp. The results demonstrate that a toothpaste containing enzymes and proteins can significantly shift the ecology of the oral microbiome (at species level) resulting in a community with a stronger association to health.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Biodiversity, Periodontology, Periodontitis, Periodontal disease, Halitosis