Concept: Hair care
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.
Dandruff is a common complaint and is suffered by as much as half of the population at some time post puberty. The condition is characterized by the presence of flakes on the scalp and in the hair, and is often accompanied by itch. The most common treatment for dandruff is the use of shampoo formulations that contain fungistatic agents such as zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and octopirox. Whilst most antidandruff shampoos are effective in resolving the symptoms of dandruff these shampoos can often result in hair condition that is less than acceptable to consumers which can lead to a tendency for them to revert to use of a non-antidandruff shampoo. This can result in a rapid return of dandruff symptoms. The aim of this investigation was to study the impact of using a combination of antidandruff actives and silicones on the resolution of dandruff and to deliver superior sensory properties to the hair. We have demonstrated that shampoo containing the dual active system of ZPT/Climbazole deposits both active agents onto a model skin surface (VitroSkin) and reduces Malassezia furfur regrowth in vitro. Clinical evaluation of the dual active shampoo demonstrated superior efficacy and retained superiority during a regression phase where all subjects reverted to using a non-antidandruff shampoo. We have also demonstrated that it is possible to deposit silicone materials from antidandruff shampoo uniformly over both virgin and damaged hair fibres that results in smoother hair fibres (as evidenced by reduced dry friction). This combination of antidandruff agents and conditioning silicones delivered from a shampoo provides subjects with superior antidandruff efficacy and desired end sensory benefits ensuring compliance and longer term dandruff removal.
The oxidative stress element of unhealthy scalp leads to compromised pre-emergent hair formation and poorly formed hair as it grows. Only cosmetic solutions can minimize the impact of unhealthy hair and to achieve healthy looking and feeling hair, the scalp health must be normalized first. The objectives of this research were to both investigate whether oxidative stress was a relevant aetiological element in scalp dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis and whether scalp condition affects the quality of hair that grows from it. Further, this research was designed to determine whether an effective anti-dandruff shampoo would repair and protect the scalp and pre-emergent hair from oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that oxidative stress is an aetiological element relevant to the dandruff condition and that a potentiated ZPT shampoo effectively improves scalp condition, including a reduction in oxidative stress. The compromised hair condition associated with dandruff is concomitantly improved when the scalp condition is improved. It appears that there is a direct link between hair quality and scalp health.
The deposition of fragrance delivery systems onto human hair from a shampoo formulation is a challenging task, as the primary function of shampoo is to cleanse the hair by removing primarily hydrophobic moieties. In this work, to tackle this challenge, phage display identified peptides that can bind to human hair under shampooing conditions are first identified and subsequently used to enhance the deposition of model fragrance delivery systems. These delivery systems are either based on poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide) (PHPMA) copolymers as a representative for polymeric profragrances or polyurethane/urea-type core-shell microcapsules as a model physical fragrance carrier. The incorporation of a hair binding peptide enhanced the deposition of PHPMA copolymers with a factor of 3.5-5.0 depending on the extent of peptide incorporation, whereas 10 w/w% surface functionalization of microcapsules with the peptide led to a 20-fold increase in their deposition. In a final experiment, treatment of the hair samples under realistic application conditions with the peptide-functionalized microcapsules resulted in an increase fragrance release from the hair surfaces.
Acquired trichorrhexis nodosa is a common cause of hair loss for patients of all ethnicities. It is especially prevalent in black patients with tightly curled hair types and can present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges due to structural differences in these hair types and the combination of various hair care and styling practices that contribute to hair damage. While scalp biopsies can help rule out other etiologies of hair loss, there is a paucity of histologic findings in acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, making this primarily a clinical diagnosis. Instead of more traditional prescription based therapies, the management of this form of hair loss emphasizes protecting the hair shaft and minimizing further damage through the development of a healthy hair care regimen. This involves appropriate selection and use of cleansing products and conditioning agents that help protect the hair from the insults of daily grooming. This paper will review the current literature on acquired trichorrhexis nodosa and will provide guidelines and recommendations for management by reviewing the different types of cleansing and conditioning products that can be used to prevent and/or halt the progression of hair breakage.
This research examines the benefits of caffeine absorption on hair stiffness. In order to test hair stiffness, we have developed an evaluation method that is not only accurate, but also inexpensive. Our evaluation method for measuring hair stiffness culminated in a model, called the Stiffness-Angle Law, which describes the elastic properties of hair and can be widely applied to the development of hair care products.
INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective.
METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth.
RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments.
DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..
Hair shaft disorders are characterized by congenital or acquired abnormalities of the hair shaft. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the prognosis and treatment options for hair shaft disorders. We used keywords in the search engines PubMed and Medline to identify all publications in English related to the prognosis and management of hair shaft disorders. Data were extracted from 96 articles that met search criteria. Findings were limited to case reports and small case series, as no studies were found. Disorders that improve in childhood include pili torti, trichorrhexis invaginata, woolly hair, and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Others, such as trichorrhexis nodosa, monilethrix, pili annulati, and pili bifurcati, improve with minoxidil. Oral retinoids have been found to improve hair abnormalities in trichorrhexis invaginata and monilethrix. There is no specific treatment for congenital hair shaft abnormalities. Gentle hair care is the mainstay of care for hair shaft disorders associated with fragility. Practices for gentle care include no brushing, backcombing, chemical products, tight braids, heat exposure, or mechanical grooming. Furthermore, any inherited or congenital disorder requires genetic counseling as part of management.
Hair shaft disorders are characterized by congenital or acquired abnormalities of the hair shaft. The objective was to review the literature regarding the prognosis and treatment options of hair shaft disorders. We used keywords in the search engines PubMed and Medline to identify all publications in the English language related to the prognosis and management of hair shaft disorders. Data were extracted from 96 articles that met search criteria. Findings were limited to case reports and small case series, as no studies were found. Disorders that improve in childhood include pili torti, trichorrhexis invaginata, wooly hair, and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Others, such as trichorrhexis nodosa, monilethrix, pili annulati, and pili bifurcati improve with minoxidil. Oral retinoids have improved hair abnormalities in trichorrhexis invaginata and monilethrix. There is no specific treatment for congenital hair shaft abnormalities. Gentle hair care is the mainstay of care for hair shaft disorders associated with fragility. Practices for gentle care include no brushing, backcombing, chemical products, tight braids, heat exposure, or mechanical grooming. Any inherited or congenital disorder requires genetic counseling as part of management.
The “hair strand test” was first developed as a model to evaluate the antifungal activity of antidandruff shampoos.