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Concept: Ha'il

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Despite the great efforts by health authorities in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) continues to be a major public health problem in the country. Many risk factors make KSA prone to outbreaks and epidemics; among these, rapid urbanization and the huge population movement are the most important. The disease is endemic in many parts of KSA, with the majority of cases concentrated in six regions, including Al-Qaseem, Riyadh, Al-Hassa, Aseer, Ha'il, and Al-Madinah. Leishmania major (L. major) and Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) are the main dermotropic species, and Phlebotomus papatasi (vector of L. major) and Phlebotomus sergenti (vector of L. tropica) are the proved vectors of the disease. Psammomys obesus and Meriones libycus have been defined as the principal reservoir hosts of zoonotic CL in Al-Hassa oasis, Al-Madinah, and Al-Qaseem provinces. Clinically, males are affected more than females, and there is no variation between the Saudis and expatriates in terms of number of reported cases, but the disease tends to run a more severe course among non-Saudis. Face is the most commonly affected site, and ulcerative pattern accounts for 90% of lesions. Despite local and international recommendations of using laboratory diagnostics to confirm CL cases, most cases in KSA are diagnosed and treated on clinical grounds and local epidemiology. However, systemic parenteral sodium stibogluconate (SSG) is the first line of therapy and used to treat all CL patients irrespective of their clinical presentation or the incriminated species. In brief, more efforts are needed to combat this disease. Several aspects of the disease require more evaluation through encouragement of national and regional studies. Development of evidence based national diagnostic and management guidelines, as well as algorithms, is urgently needed to improve the practice of diagnosing and treating CL in KSA.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania, Ha'il

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The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has seen an increase in chronic diseases. International evidence suggests that early intervention is the best approach to reduce the burden of chronic disease. However, the limited research available suggests that health care access remains unequal, with rural populations having the poorest access to and utilisation of primary health care centres and, consequently, the poorest health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the factors influencing the access to and utilisation of primary health care centres in urban and rural areas of Riyadh province of the KSA.

Concepts: Medicine, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Riyadh Province

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Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015 from three tertiary care antenatal clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Information collected includes socio-economic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, including serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and sun exposure indices. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L were considered vitamin D deficient. The majority of participants (n = 468 (81%)) were vitamin D deficient. High levels of indoor activity, whole body clothing, multiparity, total cholesterol/HDL ratio(>3.5), low HDL-cholesterol, and living in West Riyadh were significant independent predictors for vitamin D deficiency, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) of 25.4 (5.5–117.3), 17.8 (2.3–138.5), 4.0 (1.7–9.5), 3.3 (1.4–7.9), 2.8 (1.2–6.4), and 2.0 (1.1–3.5), respectively. Factors like increased physical activity, sun exposure at noon, sunrise or sunset, high educational status, and residence in North Riyadh were protective against vitamin D deficiency with ORs 0.2 (0.1–0.5); 0.2 (0.1–0.6); 0.3 (0.1–0.9); and 0.4 (0.2–0.8), respectively. All ORs were adjusted for age, BMI, sun exposure, parity, summer season, vitamin D intake, multivitamin intake, physical activity, education, employment, living in the north, and coverage with clothing. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi women during early pregnancy was high (81%). Timely detection and appropriate supplementation with adequate amounts of vitamin D should reduce the risks of vitamin D deficiency and its complications during pregnancy.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Pregnancy, Dietary supplement, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Jeddah, Ha'il

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of antibiotic prescription and dentists' awareness about the recent guidelines for antibiotic prescription.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam, King Saud University

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Students differ in their preferred methods of acquiring, processing, and recalling new information. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of undergraduate dental students and examine the influence of gender, Grade Point Average (GPA), and academic year levels on these preferences.

Concepts: Grade, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam

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There is a difference between evidence-based guidelines for geriatric patients and clinical practice of physicians. Prescribing potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) can be attributed to the fact that many physicians are not aware of PIMs usage.

Concepts: Medicine, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, House of Saud, Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, Ha'il

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The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess knowledge concerning traumatic dental injuries and their management among primary schoolteachers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of gender, nationality, marital status, school type, geographical area, age group, level of education and years of experience on teachers' knowledge.

Concepts: Education, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Primary education, School, Teacher, Jeddah, Ha'il

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This paper aims to evaluate the authorship, privacy capabilities and functions of QuadraMed and BestCare systems, implemented at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A survey was conducted by interviewing back-end users of the EMR system in the KAMC hospital to check the aforementioned systems' authorship capabilities. Both the systems scored the same, with the overall result being 146/165 including the compliance level, which represents 88% availability of all authorship functions. The Quadra system’s non-complying item was identified for only one entity, which is related to the lack of diagnosis documentation. It does not aid physicians in enhancing their ability to document diagnosis, which depends on coding and has not been implemented within the system so far. However, BestCare system provides documenting diagnosis depending on the coding part rather than free text, suggesting it is a promising system with enhanced functionalities.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, United Arab Emirates, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam

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Personalized medicine is expected to positively change the treatment of cancer, but early identification of patients who are most likely to benefit requires an integrated effort from interprofessional care providers. Centering care around a patient’s needs is the main task for a nurse coordinator, who is considered the core person for communication among all interprofessional care providers. This article describes a perspective on the nurse coordinator role as implemented in the lung cancer clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
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Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, House of Saud, Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, Ha'il

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To investigate asthma prevalence and to measure asthma symptoms among Saudi adults in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam, King Saud University