Concept: Ha'il Province
Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m. The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m, with an average value of 54.6 Bq m. Outdoor air Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m, with an average value of 10.5 Bq m. The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y. The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10 due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10 due to outdoor radon.
Awareness and knowledge of biomedical waste practices is very important for any health care setting. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about biomedical waste among health professionals in primary health care centres in Hail City, Saudi Arabia. The study included 135 of 155 professionals who dealt with biomedical waste from 16 out of 26 primary health care centres. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Overall 54.8%, 48.9% and 49.6% of the participants had good knowledge, attitudes and practices scores respectively. Profession, education and age were significantly associated with KAP level (P < 0.01): doctors, those with a degree and older respondents had better KAP scores. There was a strong correlation between knowledge and attitudes, knowledge and practices, and attitudes and practices (P ˂ 0.05). Training is recommended to enhance the knowledge of the professionals dealing with biomedical waste in the primary health care centres.