Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Gynecology


To explore whether work schedules and physically demanding work were associated with markers of ovarian reserve and response.

Concepts: Energy, Thermodynamics, Force, Gynecology


The majority of ovarian primordial follicles must be preserved in a quiescent state to allow for the regular production of gametes over the female reproductive lifespan. However, the molecular mechanism that maintains the long quiescence of primordial follicles is poorly understood. Under certain pathological conditions, the entire pool of primordial follicles matures simultaneously leading to an accelerated loss of primordial follicles and to premature ovarian failure (POF). We have previously shown that loss of Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) in mouse oocytes leads to premature activation of the entire pool of primordial follicles, subsequent follicular depletion in early adulthood, and the onset of POF. Lack of PTEN leads to increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in the oocytes. To study the functional and pathological roles of elevated mTORC1 signaling in the oocytes, we treated the Pten-mutant mice with the specific mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. When administered to Pten-deficient mice prior to the activation of the primordial follicles, rapamycin effectively prevented global follicular activation and preserved the ovarian reserve. These results provide a rationale for exploring the possible use of rapamycin as a drug for the preservation of the primordial follicle pool, and the possible prevention of POF.

Concepts: Reproduction, Menopause, Reproductive system, Enzyme inhibitor, Gynecology, Folliculogenesis, Poor ovarian reserve, Premature ovarian failure


Purpose: Imaging features and clinical characteristics of degenerated leiomyoma in patients referred for uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) were analyzed to assess the incidence of degenerated leiomyoma. Materials and Methods: Patients referred for UFE between 2008 and 2009 were retrospectively analyzed (n=276). Patients ranged in age from 27 to 51 years (mean 38.0 years). All patients underwent screening MRI with contrast enhancement. Medical histories and clinical symptoms were evaluated. Results: Among the 276 patients who underwent MRI, 14 (5.1%) showed degenerated leiomyomas. Symptoms were abdominal pain (n=4, 26.7%), menorrhagia (n=5, 35.7%) and bulk-related symptoms (n=5, 35.7%) and no symptoms (n=5, 35.7%). Of the 14 patients with degenerated leiomyomas, 5 (42.9%) had a history of pregnancy in the past two years. For T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), a high signal intensity (SI) of the leiomyoma was the most common finding (n=9, 64.3%) and a hyperintense rim (n=4, 28.6%) was the second most common. On T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), a low SI of the leiomyoma was found in six patients (42.9%), a high SI in four (28.6%) and a heterogeneous SI in four (28.6%) patients. Conservative management was performed in 11 (78.6%) patients, surgery in 3 (21.4%) and uterine artery embolization in one (7.1%) patient. Conclusion: The incidence of degeneration of leiomyoma in patients referred for UFE was 5.1%. Patients presented with variable clinical symptoms with or without a history of pregnancy. MR imaging showed a high SI on T1WI and various SIs on T2WI without contrast enhancement. An understanding of the degeneration of leiomyomata is essential when considering UFE.

Concepts: Uterus, Anatomical pathology, Radiology, Gynecology, Uterine fibroids, Leiomyoma, Myometrium, Uterine artery embolization


The aim of this study was to determine the impact of prognostic factors in primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). All cases of PFTC diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were retrieved from the files of 6 academic centers. The cases were staged according to a modification of the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system proposed by Alvarado-Cabrero et al (Gynecol Oncol 1999; 72: 367-379). One hundred twenty-seven PFTC cases were identified. The mean age of the patients was 64.2 years. Stage distribution was as follows: 72 (57%), stage I; 19 (15%), stage II; 28 (22%), stage III; and 8 (6.2%), stage IV. Depth of infiltration of the tubal wall was an independent prognostic factor in stage I cases (P < .001). Carcinomas located in the fimbriated end even without invasion had a worse prognosis than did carcinomas involving the tubal portion of the organ. The presence of vascular space invasion correlated with the depth of tubal wall invasion (P = .001) and the presence of lymph node metastases (P = .003). Tumor grade significantly correlated with survival (P < .0001), but histologic type was of marginal significance and only if it was grouped as nonserous/non-clear cell vs serous/clear cell (P = .04). The depth of invasion of the tubal wall and the presence of carcinoma in the fimbriated end even without invasion are important prognostic indicators. The modified International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system should be used on a routine basis in all carcinomas of the fallopian tube.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Gynecology, Prognosis, Fallopian tube cancer, Obstetrics and gynaecology


Cervical cancer screening usually requires use of a speculum to provide a clear view of the cervix. The speculum is one potential barrier to screening due to fear of pain, discomfort and embarrassment. The aim of this paper is to present and demonstrate the feasibility of a tampon-sized inserter and the POCkeT Colposcope, a miniature pen sized-colposcope, for comfortable, speculum-free and potentially self-colposcopy.

Concepts: Metastasis, Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Carcinoma in situ, Radiation therapy, Gynecology, Endometrial cancer, Vagina


Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), which is defined as excessively heavy, prolonged and/or frequent bleeding of uterine origin, is a frequent cause of visits to the Emergency Department and/or health care provider. While there are many etiologies of AUB, the one most likely among otherwise healthy adolescents is dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), which is characterizing any AUB when all possible underlying pathologic causes have been previously excluded. The most common cause of DUB in adolescence is anovulation, which is very frequent in the first 2-3 post-menarchal years and is associated with immaturity of the hypothalamic - pituitary - ovarian axis. Management of AUB is based on the underlying etiology and the severity of the bleeding and primary goals are prevention of complications, such as anemia and reestablishment of regular cyclical bleeding, while the management of DUB can in part be directed by the amount of flow, the degree of associated anemia, as well as patient and family comfort with different treatment modalities. Treatment options for DUB are: combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestogens, non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), tranexamic acid (anti-fibrinolytic), GnRH analogues, Danazol and Levonorgestrel releasing intra uterine system (LNG IUS).

Concepts: Medicine, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Menstrual cycle, Gynecology, Puberty, Vaginal bleeding, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding


Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations of 68 women with uterine fibroids were reviewed to determine whether MR imaging may alter the therapeutic approach based on ultrasonography alone before uterine embolization. Therapeutic decisions based on ultrasonography alone were compared to those obtained after MR imaging. Discordant findings between both examinations involved 51 women (75%), and 19 (28%) had their therapeutic approaches based on ultrasonography alone altered by MR imaging. Ultrasonography and MR imaging showed concordant findings in 17 women (25%) for whom no changes in therapeutic option were made. MR imaging alters the therapeutic approach based on ultrasonography alone in 28% of candidates for uterine artery embolization.

Concepts: Uterus, Radiology, Gynecology, Uterine fibroids, Uterine artery embolization


OBJECTIVE: Reduced CD16 expression is associated with neutrophil apoptosis. This study aimed to compare CD16 expression on neutrophils in the vagina from women with normal bacterial flora and with vaginitis. STUDY DESIGN: Vaginal lavages were sampled from volunteers diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV, n=34), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VC, n=43), BV plus VC (BV+VC, n=14), and normal flora (NF, n=51). Neutrophils were identified by expression of CD15, CD16 and CD24 surface markers as assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD16 expression was elevated in neutrophils from women with vaginitis (BV p<0.0001; VC p=0.01; BV+VC p=0.0027) as compared to women with NF. CONCLUSION: The reduction in CD16 down-regulation is consistent with prolonged neutrophil viability and activity in the vagina of women with vaginitis. This may contribute to greater microbial clearance and, conversely, with inflammation-associated pathology.

Concepts: Bacteria, Flow cytometry, Gynecology, Vagina, Candidiasis, Bacterial vaginosis, Human flora, Vaginitis


Adenomyosis is a common benign uterine pathology that is defined by the presence of islands of ectopic endometrial tissue within the myometrium. It is asymptomatic in one third of cases, but when there are clinical signs they remain non-specific. It can often be misdiagnosed on sonography as it may be taken to be multiple uterine leiomyomata or endometrial thickening, both of which have a different prognosis and treatment. Adenomyosis is often associated with hormone-dependent pelvic lesions (myoma, endometriosis, or endometrial hyperplasia). It is less commonly connected to infertility or obstetrical complications and indeed any direct relationship remains controversial. The purpose of imaging is to make the diagnosis, to determine the extent of spread (focal or diffuse, superficial or deep adenomyosis, adenomyoma), and to check whether there is any associated disease, in particular endometriosis. The aim of this article is to provide assistance in recognising adenomyosis on imaging and to identify the pathologies that are commonly associated with it in order to guide the therapeutic management of symptomatic patients. Pelvic ultrasonography is the first line investigation. Sonohysterography can assist with diagnosis in some cases (pseudothickening of the endometrium seen on sonography). MRI may be used in addition to sonography to back up the diagnosis and to look for any associated disease.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Uterus, Medical diagnosis, Gynecology, Endometrium, Endometriosis, Adenomyosis, Myometrium


PURPOSE: To analyze quality of life (QOL) in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial concluding that the addition of concurrent and maintenance bevacizumab (Arm 3) to carboplatin and paclitaxel prolongs progression-free survival in front-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer compared to chemotherapy alone (Arm 1) or chemotherapy with bevacizumab in cycles 2-6 only (Arm 2). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Trial Outcome Index of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovary (FACT-O TOI) was used to assess QOL before cycles 1, 4, 7, 13, and 21; and 6 months after completing study therapy. Differences in QOL scores were assessed using a linear mixed model, adjusting for baseline score, and age. The significance level was set at 0.0167 to account for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: 1693 patients were queried. Arm 2 (p<0.001) and Arm 3 (p<0.001) reported lower QOL scores than those in Arm 1. The treatment differences were observed mainly at cycle 4, when the patients receiving bevacizumab (Arm 2 and Arm 3) reported 2.72 points (98.3% CI: 0.88 ~ 4.57; effect size=0.18) and 2.96 points (98.3% CI: 1.13~4.78; effect size=0.20) lower QOL respectively, than those in Arm 1. The difference in QOL scores between Arm 1 and Arm 3 remained statistically significant up to cycle 7. The percentage of patients who reported abdominal discomfort dropped over time, without significant differences among study arms. CONCLUSION: The small QOL difference observed during chemotherapy did not persist during maintenance bevacizumab.

Concepts: Oncology, Statistical significance, Abdominal pain, Ovarian cancer, Gynecology, Effect size, Multiple comparisons, Gynecologic oncology