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Concept: Gummi bear


Bacterial cross-contamination from surfaces to food can contribute to foodborne disease. The cross-contamination rate of Enterobacter aerogenes was evaluated on household surfaces using scenarios that differed by surface type, food type, contact time (<1, 5, 30 and 300 s), and inoculum matrix (tryptic soy broth or peptone buffer). The surfaces used were stainless steel, tile, wood and carpet. The food types were watermelon, bread, bread with butter and gummy candy. Surfaces (25 cm(2)) were spot inoculated with 1 ml of inoculum and allowed to dry for 5 h, yielding an approximate concentration of 10(7) CFU/surface. Foods (with 16 cm(2) contact area) were dropped on the surfaces from a height of 12.5 cm and left to rest as appropriate. Post transfer surfaces and foods were placed in sterile filter bags and homogenized or massaged, diluted and plated on tryptic soy agar. The transfer rate was quantified as the log % transfer from the surface to the food. Contact time, food and surface type all had a highly significant effect (P<0.000001) on log % transfer of bacteria. The inoculum matrix (TSB or peptone buffer) also had a significant effect on transfer (P = 0.013), and most interaction terms were significant. More bacteria transferred to watermelon (∼0.2-97%) relative to other foods, while fewer bacteria transferred to gummy candy (∼0.1-62%). Transfer of bacteria to bread (∼0.02-94%) and bread with butter (∼0.02-82%) were similar, and transfer rates under a given set of condition were more variable compared with watermelon and gummy candy.

Concepts: Bread, Gummi bear, Foodborne illness, Bacteria, Enterobacter, Enterobacter aerogenes, Food safety, Food


This study determined whether consumption of calcium-containing gummies prior to fluoride varnish application enhances plaque fluoride retention and compliance with post-varnish application instructions.

Concepts: Fluoride varnish, Gummi bear, Gummy candies, Confectionery


The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between masticatory performance using a gummy jelly and masticatory movement.

Concepts: Confectionery, Gummi bear


Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. “Artificial food bolus”, but not “artificial food”, would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual’s oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy). The results indicated that Young’s modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing.

Concepts: Pascal, Gummi bear, Bolus, Achalasia, Dysphagia, Mastication, Swallowing, Young's modulus


Objective: The purpose of this double-blind, cluster-randomized clinical trial was to examine the effects of xylitol gummy bear snacks on dental caries progression in primary and permanent teeth of inner-city school children. Methods: A total of 562 children aged 5-6 years were recruited from five elementary schools in East Cleveland, Ohio. Children were randomized by classroom to receive xylitol (7.8 g/day) or placebo (inulin fiber 20 g/day) gummy bears. Gummy bears were given three times per day for the 9-month kindergarten year within a supervised school environment. Children in both groups also received oral health education, toothbrush and fluoridated toothpaste, topical fluoride varnish treatment and dental sealants. The numbers of new decayed, missing, and filled surfaces for primary teeth (dmfs) and permanent teeth (DMFS) from baseline to the middle of 2nd grade (exit exam) were compared between the treatment (xylitol/placebo) groups using an optimally-weighted permutation test for cluster-randomized data. Results: The mean new d3-6mfs at the exit exam was 5.0 ± 7.6 and 4.0 ± 6.5 for the xylitol and placebo group, respectively. Similarly, the mean new D3-6MFS was 0.38 ± 0.88 and 0.48 ± 1.39 for the xylitol and placebo group, respectively. The adjusted mean difference between the two groups was not statistically significant: new d3-6mfs: mean 0.4, 95% CI -0.25, 0.8), and new D3-6MFS: mean 0.16, 95% CI -0.16, 0.43. Conclusion: Xylitol consumption did not have additional benefit beyond other preventive measures. Caries progression in the permanent teeth of both groups was minimal, suggesting that other simultaneous prevention modalities may have masked the possible beneficial effects of xylitol in this trial. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Concepts: Placebo, Primary school, Gummi bear, Clinical trial, Fluoride therapy, Dental sealant, Teeth, Dental caries