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Concept: Growth factor receptor


A functionalized nanohydrogel siRNA delivery system and a mouse model of serous ovarian cancer were used to test predictions from previous cell line studies that knockdown of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) may be of clinical significance in the treatment of epithelial tumors especially with respect to the enhancement of platinum based therapies. Our results support these predictions and suggest that targeted delivery of EGFR siRNA may be an effective strategy for the treatment of ovarian and other epithelial tumors associated with elevated levels of EGFR and especially those demonstrating resistance to platinum-based therapies.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Signal transduction, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epidermal growth factor, Growth factor, Tumor, Growth factor receptor


The efficacy of combined therapies of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) remains controversial in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study is to estimate the efficacy and safety of adding cetuximab or panitumumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in the first line treatment in KRAS wild type patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) through meta-analysis.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Monoclonal antibodies, Colorectal cancer, Cetuximab, Growth factor receptor, Panitumumab


Estimating distant recurrence (DR) risk among women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative early breast cancer helps decisions on using adjuvant chemotherapy. The 21-gene Oncotype DX recurrence score (RS) is widely used for this. EndoPredict (EPclin) is an alternative test combining prognostic information from an eight-gene signature (EP score) with tumor size and nodal status. We compared the prognostic information provided by RS and EPclin for 10-year DR risk.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Breast cancer, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epidermal growth factor, Growth factor, Estrogen, Growth factor receptor


A new inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, vegfrecine (1), was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. MK931-CF8. The molecular structure of 1 was determined by NMR and MS analysis combined with synthesis. Compound 1 showed potent inhibitory activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases in in vitro enzyme assays, but platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) responded only weakly. Compound 1 is a promising new selective VEGFR inhibitor for investigating new treatments of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

Concepts: Signal transduction, Angiogenesis, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epidermal growth factor, Growth factor, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Growth factor receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor


Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are associated with a number of biological processes and are becoming increasingly recognized as important therapeutic targets against cancer. In this work, we provide models based on homology for the extracellular domains (ECD) of ErbB3 and ErbB4 in their active conformations, including a Heregulin ligand, followed by further refinement of the models by molecular dynamics simulations at atomistic scale. We compare the results with a model built for ErbB2 based on crystallographic information and analyze the common features observed among members of the family, namely, the periscope movement of the dimerization arm and the hinge displacement of domain IV. Finally, we refine a model for the interaction of the ECDs corresponding to a ErbB2-ErbB3 heterodimer, which is widely recognized to have a high impact in cancer development.

Concepts: DNA, Signal transduction, Biology, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epidermal growth factor, Computer simulation, Growth factor receptor, ErbB


Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members are involved in the regulation of articular cartilage homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR-1) in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and its underlying mechanisms.

Concepts: Chondroitin sulfate, Biology, Growth factor, Cartilage, Osteoarthritis, Knee, Fibroblast growth factor, Growth factor receptor


This trial assessed the efficacy and safety of docetaxel monotherapy or docetaxel in combination with ramucirumab (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 antibody) or icrucumab (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 antibody) after progression during or within 12 months of platinum-based regimens for patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

Concepts: Immune system, Clinical trial, Angiogenesis, Growth factor receptor


Wild type RAS (RAS-wt) status is predictive of the activities of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies cetuximab © and panitumumab (P). We examined the impact of C and P on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR) in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who have RAS-wt/BRAF-mutant (BRAF-mut) status.

Concepts: Immune system, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Monoclonal antibodies, Colorectal cancer, Cetuximab, Growth factor receptor, Panitumumab


Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are abdominal sarcomas which are extremely refractory to chemotherapy treatment. The treatment of GISTs has been revolutionized by use of KIT/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRA) kinase inhibitors. Unfortunately, most tumors develop resistance to front-line (imatinib) or second-line (sunitinib) therapy. Regorafenib, a KIT/PDGFRA/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) oral kinase inhibitor, has been shown to improve progression-free survival in the third- or fourth-line setting. Areas covered: This review covers the preclinical and clinical studies of regorafenib for treatment of GIST. A literature search on regorafenib was carried out using the PubMed database up to October 2013. Expert opinion: Currently, imatinib and sunitinib represent the only proven first- and second-line therapies, respectively, for advanced GISTs. Based on the results of a Phase III study, regorafenib is now established as the only proven third-line therapy. Regorafenib activity in this setting is believed to be due to its activity against oncogenic forms of KIT/PDGFRA. Although side effects are common with this agent, they can be effectively managed with a combination of supportive care, dose interruptions/reductions. The toxicity profile is similar to other oral kinase inhibitors with anti-VEGFR activity. Regorafenib is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4, and concomitant use of strong inducers/inhibitors of this enzyme should be avoided.

Concepts: Immune system, Clinical trial, Cancer, Oncology, Signal transduction, Enzyme inhibitor, Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, Growth factor receptor


A new synthetic route to clavilactone B, a naturally occurring inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, is disclosed. The route features a sequential samarium-mediated radical cyclization-fragmentation of an indanone derivative, which provides rapid access to a 10-membered carbocyclic motif fused to an aromatic ring.

Concepts: Signal transduction, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epidermal growth factor, Growth factor, Hormone, Protein kinase, Total synthesis, Growth factor receptor