SciCombinator

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Concept: Greater omentum

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We report the case of a 60-year-old man with an accessory spleen in the pelvis. He visited our outpatient clinic because of abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography (CT) showed an enhanced mass (40 mm in diameter) in the pelvis. Preoperative diagnosis was difficult even after magnetic resonance imaging and colonoscopy. The patient underwent surgery for suspicion of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor or malignant lymphoma of the rectum. Intraoperative findings showed a mass in the pelvis and a long cord-like tissue reaching the mass and arising from the great omentum; the mass was excised. Histopathologic examination indicated that the mass was splenic tissue, and feeding vessels were found in the cord-like tissue, which were determined to be derived from the left gastroepiploic artery and vein. Thus, we diagnosed it as an accessory spleen in the pelvis. An accessory spleen is not rare and can occur anywhere in the abdominal cavity. However, an accessory spleen in the pelvis is an infrequent finding, and only 9 other cases of an accessory spleen in the pelvis have been reported. Therefore, it is very difficult to make a correct diagnosis preoperatively. However, 7 of the 9 cases (77.8 %) of a pelvic accessory spleen had vascular pedicles from the great omentum or splenic hilum as feeding vessels; hence, determining the feeding blood vessels on dynamic CT may be useful for diagnosing an accessory spleen in the pelvis. Additionally, if the accessory spleen is symptomatic or has a vascular pedicle, surgeons should attempt to resect the accessory spleen in the pelvis using minimally invasive laparoscopy.

Concepts: Oncology, Blood, Surgery, Medical imaging, Pelvis, Spleen, Abdomen, Greater omentum

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Omental abscess due to a spilled gallstone is extremely rare after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man who presented with left upper abdominal pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gangrenous cholecystitis. Seven months prior to admission, gallbladder perforation with spillage of pigment gallstones and bile occurred during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The spilled gallstones were retrieved through vigorous peritoneal lavage. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 3 × 2.5 cm intra-abdominal heterogeneous mass, suspected to be an omental abscess, and ascites around the spleen. Exploratory laparoscopy revealed an inflammatory mass within the greater omentum. Laparoscopic partial omentectomy and abscess drainage were performed, and a small black pigment gallstone was unexpectedly found in the whitish abscess fluid. Abscess fluid culture results were positive for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Streptococcus salivarius, which were previously detected in the gangrenous gallbladder abscess. The histopathological diagnosis was abscess in the greater omentum. Postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 13 days later. In conclusion, we report a successful case of laparoscopic management of an omental abscess due to a spilled gallstone after LC. It is important to attempt to retrieve spilled gallstones during LC because they may occasionally result in serious complications.

Concepts: Surgery, Abdominal pain, Hepatology, Abdomen, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Gallstone, Greater omentum

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To determine the rate of radiographic healing, complications, vascularization, and bone density after repair of radial and ulnar fractures in dogs <6 kg that were treated with an autogenous cancellous bone graft (BG) or free autologous omentum graft (OG).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Density, Skeletal system, Osseous tissue, Cortical bone, Dog breed, Cancellous bone, Greater omentum

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A 35-year-old man stopped breathing after injecting a large dose of heroin. He subsequently received cardiopulmonary resuscitation from friends. He arrived to accident and emergency department with Glasgow Coma Scale of 13. On examination, he had distended and tense abdomen. CT Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvis confirmed massive tension pneumoperitoneum. A 14 Fr intravenous cannula was inserted through the umbilicus to relieve the intra-abdominal pressure. An emergency laparotomy showed petechia along the anterior gastric wall, haematoma of lesser omentum but showed no evidence of gastrointestinal perforation or organ injury. Air leak test performed by insufflating air into the stomach via nasogastric tube and abdomen filled with normal saline showed no leak. On-table oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed mild oesophagitis and petechia of cardiac gastric mucosa. He was treated with intravenous antibiotics and discharged on the fifth postoperative day with adequate analgesia.

Concepts: Intravenous therapy, Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Organ, Stomach, Abdomen, First aid, Greater omentum

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Cavernostomy and fenestration were performed in a patient who developed a lung abscess and empyema in the left lung, which was damaged after multimodality therapy for advanced thymoma. The hospitalized patient suddenly experienced cardiopulmonary arrest due to major bleeding from the left main pulmonary artery. We immediately performed the main pulmonary arterial embolization, and the patient was resuscitated. Subsequently, the patient underwent supercharged free omental flap plombage performed in the following manner: first, laparoscopic harvesting of the omentum was performed in the supine position. Then, the right gastroepiploic artery and vein were anastomosed with the left axillary artery and vein, respectively. The lung cavity, bleeding point of the pulmonary artery and the surface of the artificial pericardium were filled and covered by the supercharged omentum, and the skin was closed. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient has had no bleeding, recurrence of empyema and thymoma or skin abnormalities at 36 months postoperatively. Supercharged free omental flap plombage was a useful option for treatment of an intractable chest infection involving an artificial pericardium.

Concepts: Blood, Lung, Heart, Artery, Vein, Pulmonary artery, Greater omentum, Gastroduodenal artery

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Uterine carcinosarcomas are an aggressive and rare form of endometrial cancer. Omentectomy is not part of routine staging, but biopsy is often done because omental disease is a known poor prognostic indicator. We sought to define the role of routine omental sampling during surgical staging.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Medical terms, Menopause, Endometrium, Prognosis, Endometrial cancer, Greater omentum

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The gastro-omental artery (GOA) with the greater omentum (GO) is known for its high quality as a vascular graft, its resistance to infections as an omental flap and for its multiple applications in surgery. A better knowledge of anatomical variations of GO and its vascularization can improve the application in surgery and decrease complications. The purpose of this study was to measure diameters and lengths of the right GOA (RGOA) and study the interindividual variability of these anatomical structures.

Concepts: Medicine, Biology, Physician, Al-Andalus, Antiseptic, Anatomy, Dissection, Greater omentum

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Pseudoaneurysms of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) are rare and mostly associated with pancreatitis. However, they can occur as a possible complication following gastric or pancreatic surgery and thus prior recognition and prompt treatment is mandatory (Lee et al., 2009 [1]). We report a case of a ruptured GDA aneurysm in a patient who underwent roux-en-y-cystojejunostomy for traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst and this has rarely been reported in the literature. Our patient presented with melena one month post operatively. CT Angiogram showed pseudoaneurysm of the GDA and the origin of right gastroepiploic artery which was embolised. Our case highlights that GDA aneurysm must be considered in the differential for a patient who presents with melena following drainage of traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst and that it can be managed successfully with angioembolization.

Concepts: Peptic ulcer, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Arteries of the abdomen, Greater omentum, Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, Gastroduodenal artery, Gastroepiploic artery, Right gastro-omental artery

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Internal herniation through lesser omentum hiatus and gastrocolic ligament with malrotation is extremely rare. This type of internal hernia has rarely been described before. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and prone to misdiagnosis.

Concepts: Surgery, Hernia, Medical error, Greater omentum