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Concept: Great saphenous vein


Patients after prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) often need repeat percutaneous revascularization due to saphenous vein grafts (SVG) poor patency rates and higher risk of re-CABG. The data of different percutaneous revascularization strategies in patients with prior CABG is scarce.

Concepts: Artery, Atherosclerosis, Great saphenous vein, Coronary artery bypass surgery


The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a landmark technique for cannulation of the greater saphenous vein (GSV) near the medial malleolus. We performed bedside ultrasound in a convenience sample of 100 children, ages 3 to 16 years, to evaluate the anatomy of the GSV at the ankle. Despite the proposed constancy of the landmark technique regardless of patient age, the GSV location varied significantly with increasing patient age and weight. In children less than 10 years old or weighing less than 40 kg, the traditional landmark rarely predicted the precise location of the GSV.

Concepts: Medicine, Physician, Medical school, Mass, Kilogram, Weight, Great saphenous vein, Ankle


Saphenous donor site neuralgia is a cause of morbidity post-coronary artery bypass surgery. Saphenous nerve damage during harvesting of the great saphenous vein is thought to be responsible. We dissected 37 cadaveric lower limbs from the knee fold to the dorsal venous arches, to study the spatial relations of the saphenous nerve and great saphenous vein to identify its distribution within the leg. Distribution of the saphenous nerve was categorized into Type A, where the nerve traveled inferiorly and split into an anterior and posterior branch during its course between the knee fold and medial malleolus, Type B, where the nerve traveled anterior to the vein with a small caliber branch traveling posteriorly at the proximal end, Type C where two main branches originated at the knee fold, one anterior to and one posterior to the vein. Overall the vein and nerve crossed in 27 out of the 37 cases (73%), occurring between 5 and 29 cm from the malleolus (60% occurred between 16 and 26 cm). In 32 (86%) of cases, the distal part of the nerve and vein were tightly adhered to each other within a common sheath. The length of adherence ranged from 3 to 26 cm with an average of 14 cm. The saphenous nerve is highly vulnerable during harvesting of the great saphenous vein due to its close relationship and crossing branches. Knowledge of the distribution categories of the nerve can help guide the surgeon to avoid damaging nerve branches during harvesting. Clin. Anat. Clin. Anat. 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Blood, Artery, Vein, Ankle, Superficial vein, Saphenous nerve, Great saphenous vein, Coronary artery bypass surgery


INTRODUCTION:: No randomized clinical trial comparing treatment options for small saphenous vein (SSV) incompetence exists, and there is no clear evidence that this axis behaves the same as the great saphenous vein after treatment. This means that the existing literature base, centered on the treatment of great saphenous vein incompetence cannot simply be extrapolated to inform the management of SSV insufficiency. This trial compares the gold standard of conventional surgery and endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in the management of SSV incompetence. METHODS:: Patients with unilateral, primary saphenopopliteal junction incompetence and SSV reflux were randomized equally into parallel groups receiving either surgery or EVLA. Patients were assessed at baseline and weeks 1, 6, 12, and 52. Outcomes included successful abolition of axial reflux on duplex, visual analog pain scores, recovery time, complication rates, Venous Clinical Severity Score, and quality of life profiling. RESULTS:: A total of 106 patients were recruited and randomized to surgery (n = 53) or EVLA (n = 53). Abolition of SSV reflux was significantly higher after EVLA (96.2%) than surgery (71.7%) (P < 0.001). Postoperative pain was significantly lower after EVLA (P < 0.05), allowing an earlier return to work and normal function (P < 0.001). Minor sensory disturbance was significantly lower in the EVLA group (7.5%) than in surgery (26.4%) (P = 0.009). Both groups demonstrated similar improvements in Venous Clinical Severity Score and quality of life. CONCLUSION:: EVLA produced the same clinical benefits as conventional surgery but was more effective in addressing the underlying pathophysiology and was associated with less periprocedural morbidity allowing a faster recovery. (Registration number: NCT00841178.).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Sclerotherapy, Varicose veins, Small saphenous vein, Dorsal venous arch of the foot, Vein, Great saphenous vein, Superficial vein


BACKGROUND: Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA) is one of the most accepted treatment options for varicose veins. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the new radial fiber slim (ELVeS-radial-slim kit™) for the 1470 nm diode laser in perforator veins with a 1 month follow-up. METHODS: Our prospective observational cohort study comprised 69 perforating veins in 55 patients. Ninety percent of all patients were in the CEAP-stage C3-C6. The radial fiber slim was used to occlude the perforating vein and the great or small saphenous vein in the same procedure. The primary efficacy endpoint of the study was ultrasonographically proven elimination of venous reflux in the perforating vein after at least one month. Secondary efficacy and further safety end points after one month were as follows: (1) sonographic exclusion of recanalization of the treated vein segments, (2) deep vein thrombosis (DVT), clinical pulmonary embolism (PE), or superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) as defined by objective testing, (3) death from any cause, (4) persistent clinical complaints such as pain and paresthesia. RESULTS: Follow-up could be completed in all patients. In all treated perforating varicose veins, occlusion with elimination of reflux could be demonstrated immediately after the procedure. After one month 95.6% of the treated veins were still occluded (67/69). During follow-up, we did not diagnose any DVT, PE or SVT in the area related to the treated perforating vein. No patient died. One patient reported paresthesia distally of the puncture site. CONCLUSION: Endovenous laser treatment of varicose perforating veins with 1470 nm diode laser using the radial fiber slim is effective and safe with low recanalization rates during 1-month follow-up.

Concepts: Vascular surgery, Sclerotherapy, Great saphenous vein, Varicose veins, Superficial vein, Deep vein, Deep vein thrombosis, Vein


Proximal and distal (mid-thigh) ultrasound-guided continuous adductor canal block techniques have been described but not yet compared, and infusion benefits or side effects may be determined by catheter location. We hypothesized that proximal placement will result in faster onset of saphenous nerve anesthesia, without additional motor block, compared to a distal technique.

Concepts: Adductor hiatus, Great saphenous vein, Creativity techniques, Knee replacement, Anatomy, Adductor canal, Saphenous nerve


We assessed the incidence of venous thromboembolism following treatment of great saphenous insufficiency by endovenous thermal ablation or foam sclerotherapy using meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials and case series.

Concepts: Saphenous nerve, Randomized controlled trial, Epidemiology, Sclerotherapy, Superficial vein, Varicose veins, Great saphenous vein, Vein



In cerebral revascularization surgery in Japan, the preferred solution for rinsing and intraoperative storage of saphenous vein or radial artery grafts is a heparinized saline solution with albumin. On the other hand, most cardiac surgeons routinely use solutions of heparinized autologous blood during surgery. Here we used the latter type of solution for cerebral revascularization surgery and evaluated its efficacy. Patients and methods:Since December 2011, we have used heparinized autologous blood for saphenous vein grafts during cerebral revascularization surgery. For this, 20mL of the whole blood was obtained from an arterial line;this blood was then mixed with 20mL of a heparinized saline solution containing 500IU of heparin and 40mg of papaverine hydrochloride. The saphenous vein was harvested using standard procedures and immersed in the autologous blood solution just before implantation. Results:Between December 2011 and March 2013, six revascularizations using saphenous vein grafts were performed using this solution. None of the anastomoses presented complications related to revascularization procedures, and all grafts were clearly present postoperatively. Discussion:There is still no evidence that the storage in autologous blood is superior to the use of a saline solution with albumin. However, the national health insurance does not cover the use of albumin products, which carries an additional cost. Furthermore, the autologous blood medium is a red-colored solution that indicates the presence of unfavorable graft leaks when the wall of the graft turns red. Conclusion:We recommend the use of heparinized autologous blood for intraoperative rinsing and storage grafts.

Concepts: Coronary artery bypass surgery, Radial artery, Surgery, Vein, Great saphenous vein, Heart, Artery, Blood


Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage is a potentially life-threatening complication. We report herein our experience with a 65-year-old man with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy with lymphadenectomy following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. On postoperative day 45, he developed massive hematemesis. Angiography revealed active bleeding from the common hepatic artery, and transcatheter coil embolization of that vessel was successfully performed. On postoperative day 64, he again developed massive hematemesis. Angiography revealed active bleeding from the proximal superior mesenteric artery. Immediately after coil embolization of that vessel, bypass grafting between the superior mesenteric artery and the right common iliac artery was performed, using a greater saphenous vein graft. The combination of embolization and bypass grafting is an option for treatment of bleeding from the superior mesenteric artery in an emergent situation.

Concepts: Celiac artery, Abdominal aorta, Great saphenous vein, Superior mesenteric artery, Radiology, Blood, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Arteries of the abdomen