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Concept: Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor

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We previously reported that talimogene laherparepvec, an oncolytic herpes virus encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), resulted in an objective response rate of 26 % in patients with advanced melanoma in a phase II clinical trial. The response of individual lesions, however, was not reported. Since talimogene laherparepvec is thought to mediate anti-tumor activity through both direct tumor cytolysis and induction of systemic tumor-specific immunity, we sought to determine the independent response rate in virus-injected and non-injected lesions.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Clinical trial, Innate immune system, Immunology, The Independent, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Herpes

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To determine the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of the recombinant human monoclonal antibody MOR103 to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with clinical or MRI activity.

Concepts: Monoclonal antibodies, Immunology, Monoclonal antibody therapy, Multiple sclerosis, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor

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Despite the therapeutic value of current rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatments, agents with alternative modes of action are required. Mavrilimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-α, was evaluated in patients with moderate-to-severe RA.

Concepts: Protein, Monoclonal antibodies, Immunology, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Sociology, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor

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Hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (herPAP) constitutes a rare, life threatening lung disease characterized by the inability of alveolar macrophages to clear the alveolar airspaces from surfactant phospholipids. On a molecular level, the disorder is defined by a defect in the CSF2RA gene coding for the GM-CSF receptor alpha-chain (CD116). As therapeutic options are limited, we currently pursue a cell and gene therapy approach aiming for the intrapulmonary transplantation of gene-corrected macrophages derived from herPAP-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (herPAP-iPSC) employing transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Targeted insertion of a codon-optimized CSF2RA-cDNA driven by the hybrid cytomegalovirus (CMV) early enhancer/chicken beta actin (CAG) promoter into the AAVS1 locus resulted in robust expression of the CSF2RA gene in gene-edited herPAP-iPSCs as well as thereof derived macrophages. These macrophages displayed typical morphology, surface phenotype, phagocytic and secretory activity, as well as functional CSF2RA expression verified by STAT5 phosphorylation and GM-CSF uptake studies. Thus, our study provides a proof-of-concept, that TALEN-mediated integration of the CSF2RA gene into the AAVS1 safe harbor locus in patient-specific iPSCs represents an efficient strategy to generate functionally corrected monocytes/macrophages, which in the future may serve as a source for an autologous cell-based gene therapy for the treatment of herPAP.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Molecular biology, Stem cell, Cell biology, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor

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In multiple sclerosis (MS), there is a growing interest in inhibiting the pro-inflammatory effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We sought to evaluate the therapeutic potential and underlying mechanisms of GM-CSF receptor alpha (Rα) blockade in animal models of MS. We show that GM-CSF signaling inhibition at peak of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) results in amelioration of disease progression. Similarly, GM-CSF Rα blockade in relapsing-remitting (RR)-EAE model prevented disease relapses and inhibited T cell responses specific for both the inducing and spread myelin peptides, while reducing activation of mDCs and inflammatory monocytes. In situ immunostaining of lesions from human secondary progressive MS (SPMS), but not primary progressive MS patients shows extensive recruitment of GM-CSF Rα(+) myeloid cells. Collectively, this study reveals a pivotal role of GM-CSF in disease relapses and the benefit of GM-CSF Rα blockade as a potential novel therapeutic approach for treatment of RRMS and SPMS.

Concepts: Immune system, Protein, Cell biology, Immunology, Multiple sclerosis, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Encephalomyelitis

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Clozapine is associated with hematological abnormalities, notably neutropenia, which may progress to agranulocytosis. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been used to reduce the frequency and duration of clozapine-associated neutropenia. This review aims to explore the use, efficacy, and tolerability of these cytokines in the treatment of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis.

Concepts: White blood cell, Hematology, Growth factors, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Colony-stimulating factor, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, Agranulocytosis, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor

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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease characterized by surfactant accumulation, and is caused by disruption of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling. Abnormalities in CSF2 receptor alpha (CSF2RA) were reported to cause pediatric hereditary PAP. We report here the first case of CSF2RA-mutated, elderly-onset hereditary (h) PAP.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Lung, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor

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Advances in the treatment of metastatic melanoma have been achieved in recent years: immunotherapies and targeted therapies have demonstrated survival benefits over older agents such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), dacarbazine, and glycoprotein peptide vaccine (gp100) in pivotal phase 3 trials. It is important to compare therapies to guide the treatment decision-making process, and establishing the relationship between older agents can strengthen the networks of evidence for newer therapies. We report the outcome of an indirect comparison of GM-CSF, dacarbazine, and gp100 in metastatic melanoma through meta-analysis of absolute treatment effect.

Concepts: Comparison, Decision making, Immunology, Melanoma, Meta-analysis, Publication bias, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor