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Concept: Grammatical gender


PE lessons are the formal opportunity in schools for promotion of physical activity and fitness. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot PE intervention on physical activity, fitness, and psychosocial outcomes.

Concepts: Exercise, England, English language, Inflection, Grammatical gender


In this study we investigate the effect of age of acquisition (AoA) on grammatical processing in second language learners as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We compare a traditional analysis involving the calculation of averages across a certain time window of the ERP waveform, analyzed with categorical groups (early vs. late), with a generalized additive modeling analysis, which allows us to take into account the full range of variability in both AoA and time. Sixty-six Slavic advanced learners of German listened to German sentences with correct and incorrect use of non-finite verbs and grammatical gender agreement. We show that the ERP signal depends on the AoA of the learner, as well as on the regularity of the structure under investigation. For gender agreement, a gradual change in processing strategies can be shown that varies by AoA, with younger learners showing a P600 and older learners showing a posterior negativity. For verb agreement, all learners show a P600 effect, irrespective of AoA. Based on their behavioral responses in an offline grammaticality judgment task, we argue that the late learners resort to computationally less efficient processing strategies when confronted with (lexically determined) syntactic constructions different from the L1. In addition, this study highlights the insights the explicit focus on the time course of the ERP signal in our analysis framework can offer compared to the traditional analysis.

Concepts: Grammar, English language, Event-related potential, Inflection, Syntax, Grammatical number, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender


The aim of the present study was to provide normative data for the Croatian language using 346 visually presented objects (Cycowicz, Friedman, Rothstein, & Snodgrass Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 65:171-237, 1997; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher Clinical Aphasiology 24:121-133, 1996; Snodgrass & Vanderwart Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6:174-215, 1980). Picture naming was standardized according to seven variables: naming latency, name agreement, familiarity, visual complexity, word length, number of syllables, and word frequency. The descriptive statistics and correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with normative studies in other languages. These normative data for pictorial stimuli named by young healthy Croatian native speakers will be useful in studies of perception, language, and memory, as well as for preoperative and intraoperative mapping of speech and language brain areas.

Concepts: Psychology, Cognitive psychology, Cognition, Linguistics, Language, Learning, Inflection, Grammatical gender


To assess the prevalence and intensity of musculoskeletal pain and to estimate probability of developing playing-related musculoskeletal disorders, depending on risk factors, including gender, years of playing the musical instrument, frequency of practice (number of days per week), average daily practice time, and habitual physical activity level, in young instrumentalists.

Concepts: Risk, Organ, Physical quantities, Sound, Music, Musical instrument, Orchestra, Grammatical gender


Abstract This study investigates verbal morphology in Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in German, focusing on past participle inflection. Longitudinal data from 12 German-speaking children with SLI, six monolingual and six Turkish-German sequential bilingual children, were examined, plus an additional group of six typically developing Turkish-German sequential bilingual children. In a recent study (Rothweiler, M., Chilla, S., & H. Clahsen. (2012). Subject verb agreement in Specific Language Impairment: A study of monolingual and bilingual German-speaking children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 39-57), the same children with SLI were found to be severely impaired in reliably producing correct agreement-marked verb forms. By contrast, the new results reported in this study show that both the monolingual and the bilingual children with SLI produce participle inflection according to their language age. Our results strengthen the case of difficulties with agreement as a linguistic marker of SLI in German and show that it is possible to identify SLI from an early sequential bilingual child’s performance in one of her two languages.

Concepts: Language, Verb, Inflection, Grammatical number, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical gender, Participle, Gerund


Spoken words carry linguistic and indexical information to listeners. Abstractionist models of spoken word recognition suggest that indexical information is stripped away in a process called normalization to allow processing of the linguistic message to proceed. In contrast, exemplar models of the lexicon suggest that indexical information is retained in memory, and influences the process of spoken word recognition. In the present study native Spanish listeners heard Spanish words that varied in grammatical gender (masculine, ending in -o, or feminine, ending in -a) produced by either a male or a female speaker. When asked to indicate the grammatical gender of the words, listeners were faster and more accurate when the sex of the speaker “matched” the grammatical gender than when the sex of the speaker and the grammatical gender “mismatched.” No such interference was observed when listeners heard the same stimuli, but identified whether the speaker was male or female. This finding suggests that indexical information, in this case the sex of the speaker, influences not just processes associated with word recognition, but also higher-level processes associated with grammatical processing. This result also raises questions regarding the widespread assumption about the cognitive independence and automatic nature of grammatical processes.

Concepts: Male, Gender, Sentence, Language, German language, Inflection, Morphology, Grammatical gender


Heterosexism and patriarchy collude to create an expectation of pregnancy for all women. In addition, the bodily production of pregnancy has been socially gendered as feminine because of its association with female-bodied people. These two ideological codes-that all women should become mothers through pregnancy and that pregnancy is a femininely gendered endeavor-suggest conundrums for masculine lesbians. This study relies on interview data with 14 childfree masculine-identified lesbians about the ways in which they are able (or unable) to imagine themselves as pregnant people in their future lives. Participants' navigation of the concept of pregnancy reveal the complexity of gendered bodies and gender practice.

Concepts: Male, Gender, Sociology, Gender role, Gender studies, Femininity, Feminism, Grammatical gender


How does cross-linguistic variation in linguistic structure affect children’s acquisition of early number word meanings? We tested this question by investigating number word learning in two unrelated languages that feature a tripartite singular-dual-plural distinction: Slovenian and Saudi Arabic. We found that learning dual morphology affects children’s acquisition of the number word two in both languages, relative to English. Children who knew the meaning of two were surprisingly frequent in the dual languages, relative to English. Furthermore, Slovenian children were faster to learn two than children learning English, despite being less-competent counters. Finally, in both Slovenian and Saudi Arabic, comprehension of the dual was correlated with knowledge of two and higher number words.

Concepts: Linguistics, Word, Grammar, Meaning of life, Knowledge, Root, Grammatical number, Grammatical gender


While there is substantial evidence that adults who violate gender stereotypes often face backlash (i.e. social and economic penalties), less is known about the nature of gender stereotypes for young children, and the penalties that children may face for violating them. We conducted three experiments, with over 2000 adults from the US, to better understand the content and consequences of adults' gender stereotypes for young children. In Experiment 1, we tested which characteristics adults (N = 635) believed to be descriptive (i.e. typical), prescriptive (i.e. required), and proscriptive (i.e. forbidden) for preschool-aged boys and girls. Using the characteristics that were rated in Experiment 1, we then constructed vignettes that were either ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’, and manipulated whether the vignettes were said to describe a boy or a girl. Experiment 2 (N = 697) revealed that adults rated stereotype-violating children as less likeable than their stereotype-conforming peers, and that this difference was more robust for boys than girls. Experiment 3 (N = 731) was a direct replication of Experiment 2, and revealed converging evidence of backlash against stereotype-violating children. In sum, our results suggest that even young children encounter backlash from adults for stereotype violations, and that these effects may be strongest for boys.

Concepts: Female, Gender, Childhood, Girl, Boy, Noun class, Grammatical gender, Norwegian language


Chest binding involves the compression of chest tissue for masculine gender expression among people assigned a female sex at birth, particularly transgender and gender non-conforming individuals. There are no peer-reviewed studies that directly assess the health impacts of chest binding, yet transgender community resources commonly discuss symptoms such as pain and scarring. A cross-sectional 32-item survey was administered online to an anonymous, non-random sample of adults who were assigned a female sex at birth and had had experience of binding (n = 1800). Multivariate regression models were used to identify practices associated with self-reported health outcomes. Of participants, 51.5% reported daily binding. Over 97% reported at least one of 28 negative outcomes attributed to binding. Frequency (days/week) was consistently associated with negative outcomes (22/28 outcomes). Compression methods associated with symptoms were commercial binders (20/28), elastic bandages (14/28) and duct tape or plastic wrap (13/28). Larger chest size was primarily associated with dermatological problems. Binding is a frequent activity for many transmasculine individuals, despite associated symptoms. Study findings offer evidence of how binding practices may enhance or reduce risk. Clinicians caring for transmasculine patients should assess binding practices and help patients manage risk.

Concepts: Male, Female, Biology, Gender, Sex, Gender role, Gender identity, Grammatical gender