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Concept: Gram


Parascaris equorum generally infects horses less than 18 months old and its pathological effects can be severe. Infection occurs when larvated eggs, present in pastures, paddocks, stalls, and on feeding and watering equipment are ingested. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of windrow composting on the viability of P. equorum eggs at a cooperating central Kentucky horse farm. Three grams of feces containing 2216 P. equorum eggs per gram were sealed in filter bag sentinel chambers. Chambers were exposed to 1 of 3 treatments: constant exposure or intermittent exposure to the interior of the windrow; controls were stored at 4°C. At day 0, all chambers in the experimental treatments were placed in the center of 10 locations of the windrow. On subsequent days when the windrow was turned, chambers in the constant exposure treatment were returned to the interior of the windrow and chambers in the intermittent exposure treatment were alternated between resting on top of, or inside, the windrow. Chambers from each treatment and control chambers were removed at days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 18; and incubated for 21 days at room temperature (24°C). After incubation, eggs were recovered from the chambers using double centrifugation flotation. Eggs were evaluated microscopically, staged according to development and classified as viable or nonviable based on whether embryonation to the larval stage had occurred. Results were reported as the mean percent viable eggs for each treatment and time point. A mixed linear model with repeated measures was used to evaluate the influence of experimental day and treatment on the percent viability of P. equorum eggs. Chambers treated with constant exposure contained 10.73% (SD=0.29) viable eggs on day 2 and declined to an average of 0.00% by day 8. Chambers exposed to the intermittent treatment contained 16.08% (SD=0.26) viable eggs on day 2 and decreased to 0.00% by day 6. Control chambers for days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 18 all had viabilities above 79.00%. A significant fixed effect of experimental day (p<0.0001) and compost treatment (p<0.0001) was observed. There was no significant interaction between experimental day and compost treatment (p>0.7459). The results of this study demonstrate that windrow composting was effective at rendering P. equorum eggs nonviable when it was tested under the conditions at a working horse farm.

Concepts: Larva, Effectiveness, Compost, Composting, British Columbia Interior, Vermicompost, In-vessel composting, Gram


The aims of this study were to 1) compare the inflammatory potential of night- and day-shift nurses' diets with regard to time of day and work status and 2) explore how the timing of food intake during work and off-work is associated with cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors between these two groups. Female nurses (N = 17; 8 day-shift and 9 night-shift) reported food intake over 9 days. On a middle day off of work, metabolic parameters were measured after an overnight fast. Energy/macronutrient intake and inflammatory potential of dietary intake (as assessed via the Dietary Inflammatory Index™) were calculated for nurses' workdays, work nights, off-work days, and off-work nights. Work-night total food intake (grams) accounted for a significant amount of variance in CMS risk factors for night-shift nurses only. Increased total gram consumption during night-shift nurses' work nights was associated with increased lipid levels - independent of the macronutrient composition of the food consumed. Alternatively, for night-shift nurses, work-day intake of several food parameters accounted for a significant proportion of variance in HDL cholesterol levels, with higher intake associated with higher HDL levels. For both day- and night-shift nurses, food intake during the day was more pro-inflammatory regardless of shift type or work status. Our novel approach of combining time-of-day-specific and work-day-specific analyses of dietary inflammatory factors and macronutrient composition with measurement of CMS risk factors suggests a link between meal timing and cardiometabolic health for shift-working nurses.

Concepts: Nutrition, Energy, The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna, Food, High-density lipoprotein, Shift work, Gram


A fixed dose of cefazolin results in serum concentrations that decrease as body mass increases. Current national guidelines suggest a pre-operative cefazolin dose of two grams may be insufficient for patients ≥120 kg; thus a three gram dose is recommended. These recommendations, however, are based on pharmacokinetic rather than outcome data. We evaluate the efficacy of pre-operative cefazolin two gram and three gram doses as measured by the rate of surgical site infection (SSI).

Concepts: Metrology, Mass, International System of Units, Kilogram, Newton, Metric system, Gram, Centimetre gram second system of units


Despite the recent advances in treatment of CLL with targeted agents such as ibrutinib, availability of non-chemotherapy based therapies is desired. Given the 58% response rate (1996 NCI-WG criteria) of single agent ofatumumab in CLL refractory to fludarabine and alemtuzumab, we initiated a phase II trial examining response, safety, and progression-free survival (PFS) of ofatumumab as front-line monotherapy. Patients enrolled included untreated, symptomatic CLL patients over the age of 65 or those who were inappropriate/did not desire chemotherapy. Two cohorts were enrolled sequentially examining either 1 gram (33 patients) or 2 grams (44 patients) weekly for 8 weeks followed by maintenance dosing every 2 months for a total of 24 months. Patients receiving 1 gram were older than those receiving 2 grams, but there were no significant differences in other clinical characteristics. The best overall response rates in the 1 and 2 gram patient cohorts were 72% and 89% (1996 NCI-WG criteria), respectively (54% and 68%, respectively, using 2008 IWCLL criteria). All but 2 responses were partial. The 24-month estimated PFS rates were 46% and 78%, respectively. Response and PFS was lower in del(17p) and del(11q) CLL patients. Differences in PFS between dose cohorts were statistically significant and remained so when adjusting for age or high-risk cytogenetics. Toxicity of this treatment was mild with only 6 patients not completing therapy due to toxicity. Ofatumumab induction followed by maintenance therapy in untreated CLL represents a well tolerated and active regimen, particularly with the 2 grams of ofatumumab. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Statistics, Statistical significance, The Age, Leukemia, All rights reserved, Copyright, Gram


Decagram quantities of enantiopure (+)-mefloquine have been produced via kinetic resolution of racemic mefloquine using a ROMP-gel supported chiral acyl hydroxamic acid resolving agent. The requisite monomer was prepared in a few synthetic steps without chromatography and polymerization was safely performed on a >30 gram scale under ambient conditions. The reagent was readily regenerated and reused multiple times for the resolution of 150 grams of (±)-mefloquine and other chiral N-heterocylces.

Concepts: Water, Stereochemistry, Mass, Enantiomer, Resolution, Hydroxamic acid, Gram, Decagram


The generation of bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) with natural IgG architecture in a practical and efficient manner has been a longstanding challenge. Here we describe controlled Fab-arm exchange (cFAE), which is an easy-to-use method to generate bispecific IgG1 (bsIgG1). The protocol involves the following: (i) separate expression of two parental IgG1s containing single matching point mutations in the CH3 domain; (ii) mixing of parental IgG1s under permissive redox conditions in vitro to enable recombination of half-molecules; (iii) removal of the reductant to allow reoxidation of interchain disulfide bonds; and (iv) analysis of exchange efficiency and final product using chromatography-based or mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods. The protocol generates bsAbs with regular IgG architecture, characteristics and quality attributes both at bench scale (micrograms to milligrams) and at a mini-bioreactor scale (milligrams to grams) that is designed to model large-scale manufacturing (kilograms). Starting from good-quality purified proteins, exchange efficiencies of ≥95% can routinely be obtained within 2-3 d (including quality control).

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Redox, Mass, Disulfide bond, Kilogram, Metric system, Gram


Microalgae biofilms could be used as a production platform for microalgae biomass. In this study, a photobioreactor design based on a rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used as a production platform for microalgae biomass cultivated in biofilm. In the photobioreactor, referred to as Algadisk, microalgae grow in biofilm on vertical rotating disks partially submerged in a growth medium. The objective is to evaluate the potential of the Algadisk photobioreactor with respect to the effects of disk roughness, disk rotation speed and CO2 concentration. These objectives where evaluated in relationship to productivity, photosynthetic efficiency, and long-term cultivation stability in a lab-scale Algadisk system. Although the lab-scale Algadisk system is used, operation parameters evaluated are relevant for scale-up. Chlorella Sorokiniana was used as model microalgae. In the lab-scale Algadisk reactor, productivity of 20.1 ± 0.7 gram per m(2) disk surface per day and a biomass yield on light of 0.9 ± 0.04 grams dry weight biomass per mol photons were obtained. Different disk rotation speeds did demonstrate minimal effects on biofilm growth and on the diffusion of substrate into the biofilm. CO2 limitation, however, drastically reduced productivity to 2-4 gram per m(2) disk surface per day. Productivity could be maintained over a period of 21 weeks without re-inoculation of the Algadisk. Productivity decreased under extreme conditions such as pH 9-10, temperature above 40°C, and with low CO2 concentrations. Maximal productivity, however, was promptly recovered when optimal cultivation conditions were reinstated. These results exhibit an apparent opportunity to employ the Algadisk photobioreactor at large scale for microalgae biomass production if diffusion does not limit the CO2 supply. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Algae, Photosynthesis, Carbon dioxide, Bacteria, Biofilm, Rotation, Kilogram, Gram


Abstract Ferruginous bodies (FBs) are iron-coated entities that form in the body around inorganic fibers or other particulates that can serve as indicators of exposure to inorganic dust. Studies of FB have been conducted consistently in the lungs of adults but have not been explored in children during the past 20 years. The objective of this work was to quantify the FB, classify them as to morphological type and conduct a mineralogical analysis using the energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA) with samples obtained from 72 autopsies performed on children. Three grams of lung tissue were digested in commercial bleach, and all the FB found were quantified. The FB from the positive cases was analyzed by EDXA. Results show that 17% of cases presented FB with a median concentration of 5.7 ferruginous bodies per gram of dry weight (FB/g). Larger quantities of FB were recovered from the lungs of rural residents, at concentrations of 11.33 FB/g. Ten cases of children under 5 years of age also presented 5.7 FB/g, but none of these groups showed significant differences when compared to populations of children residing in Mexico City or to children over 5 years of age (p > 0.05). Type-1 FB was the predominant morphological form present. All FB were aluminosilicates. It can be concluded that Mexican children retain FB at low concentrations. All the cores of the FB analyzed in this study were aluminosilicates. Only one contained kaolinite, while the other 10 consisted of some kind of feldspar or clay-like mineral and may thus reflect intramural exposure in children.

Concepts: Lung, Concentration, Mineral, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Mexico, Gram staining, Conducting, Gram


Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

Concepts: Obesity, Mass, Body shape, Kilogram, Weight, Gamma ray, Metric system, Gram


Different roughage-to-concentrate ratios of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) (a by-product of the biofuel industry)-based complete diets were assessed. Twenty four growing Nellore × Deccani ram lambs aged about 3 months (average body wt., 10.62 ± 0.25 kg) were randomly allotted to four complete rations (CR) varying in roughage-to-concentrate ratios viz. 60:40 (CR-I), 50:50 (CR-II), 40:60 (CR-III) and 30:70(CR-IV) for a period of 180 days. The feed intake was comparable among the lambs fed different experimental complete diets. Average daily weight gain (in grams) was 77.31 ± 4.90, 81.76 ± 5.16, 85.83 ± 2.83 and 86.30 ± 3.25, and feed conversion ratio (in kilograms of feed per kilogram gain) averaged 11.42 ± 0.68, 10.57 ± 0.64, 10.17 ± 0.37 and 9.96 ± 0.38 in ram lambs fed CR-I, CR-II, CR-III and CR-IV rations, respectively. Statistically, differences in daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio among the lambs fed four experimental rations were not significant (P > 0.05). The cost per kilogram gain was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in ram lambs fed CR-IV and CR-III rations compared to CR-I ration, and it was comparable between CR-I and CR-II rations. Dressing percentage averaged 44.90 ± 0.15, 42.57 ± 0.72, 43.67 ± 0.16 and 44.42 ± 0.76 for the respective diets. No significant difference and trend was observed in preslaughter weight, empty body weight, carcass weights, dressing percentage, wholesale cuts and edible and non-edible portions of experimental animals. Similarly, no significant variation could be seen in bone and meat yield (in per cent) and their ratios in various wholesale cuts among the dietary treatments. The roughage-to-concentrate ratio did not affect the chemical composition of meat; however, the fat content of meat was linearly increased with increase in the proportion of concentrate in the diets. The results of the experiment indicated that SSB can be included at 60 % level in the complete diet for economical mutton production from growing Nellore × Deccani ram lambs.

Concepts: Statistical significance, Mass, Ratio, Kilogram, Feed conversion ratio, Livestock, Weight, Gram