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Concept: Goitre


Due to the likelihood of physical and mental health impacts following the unprecedented accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey to assist in the long-term health management of residents. This included thyroid ultrasound examination for all children in Fukushima. For appropriate evaluation of ultrasound screening of the thyroid, it is important to understand its reference data of thyroid findings in children in general. In order to analyze the frequencies of specific thyroid findings, we conducted ultrasound screening of the thyroid by the same procedures as used in Fukushima in 4,365 children, aged 3 to 18 years, from three Japanese prefectures. Overall, thyroid cysts were identified in 56.88% and thyroid nodules in 1.65% of the participants. Thyroid cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm were identified in 4.58% and 1.01%, respectively, and age-adjusted prevalences were 3.82% and 0.99%, respectively. Although the prevalence of cysts and nodules varied among the examination areas, no significant differences were observed among the three examination areas in the prevalence of cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm. Also, the prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, especially those with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm, significantly increased with age, and showed a female predominance. We also identified ectopic thymus (1.95%), diffuse goiter (1.40%), ultimobranchial body (0.73%), lymph node swelling (0.21%) and thyroid agenesis (0.05%). This is the first ultrasound description of the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, or of the prevalence of abnormalities other than cysts and nodules, such as ectopic thymus, in relation to age, in the general Japanese child population. We contend that this can provide relevant information for the Fukushima Health Management Survey and future population studies.

Concepts: Demography, Japan, Nuclear power, Goitre, Prefectures of Japan, Fukushima Prefecture, Honshū, Parafollicular cell


The relation between therapy options for Graves' disease (GD) and the course of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) are still controversial. Our aim was to compare the occurrence of development or worsening of GO in patients who were treated with antithyroid drugs (ATDs) or radioactive iodine (RAI) or thyroidectomy (TX).

Concepts: Thyroid disease, Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid, Graves' disease, Thyroidectomy, Goitre, Graves' ophthalmopathy, Antithyroid drugs


The treatment of prominent eyes is still a challenging task. As well as the surgery, proper preoperative diagnosis differentiating between patients with and without Graves ophthalmopathy plays an important role. In functionally asymptomatic patients with Graves disease suffering from the aesthetic impairment of prominent eyes, the transpalpebral decompression by intraorbital fat removal technique has been proved to be reliable, effective, safe, and easily performed by a trained and experienced oculoplastic surgeon. This technique provides long-lasting results, leading to improvement not only in visual function but also in personal well-being and in the patient’s social life, with a high benefit-to-risk ratio. The most powerful tool to treat the lower lid deformity and malar bags in patients without Graves disease is the subperiosteal midface lift. It shortens the lid-cheek junction and blends the retaining periorbital ligaments. Furthermore, it adds volume to the lower lid and gives a stable support. By the nature of the procedure, it also turns a negative into a positive vector. In experienced hands, Olivari’s orbital decompression and Hester’s midface lift are ideal options for the treatment of prominent eyes.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Thyroid disease, Hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, Goitre, Graves' ophthalmopathy



In six children, biotin produced changes in thyroid-function tests that mimic those seen in Graves' disease.

Concepts: Hyperthyroidism, Goitre


Deficiencies of iodine and iron may have adverse effect on thyroid function. This study was undertaken to investigate the association between iron status and thyroid function in Nepalese children living in hilly regions.

Concepts: Chernobyl disaster, The Association, Thyroid, Thyroid hormone, Iodine, Triiodothyronine, Goitre, Cretinism


A 56-year-old man was referred to a dermatologist for assessment of the progression of his thyroid dermopathy. Three years earlier, he had received a diagnosis of Graves' disease with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and dermopathy.

Concepts: Thyroid disease, Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid, Graves' disease, Goitre, Graves' ophthalmopathy


Thyrotoxicosis after total thyroidectomy is mostly iatrogenic. Rarely, a hyperfunctional thyroid remnant or ectopic tissue may be the cause. There are few cases of Graves' disease arising from thyroid tissue located in the mediastinum and none in which Graves' disease was diagnosed only after surgery. We report the case of a patient with Graves’s disease in a mediastinal thyroid mass presenting 7 years after total thyroidectomy for nontoxic goiter.

Concepts: Medical terms, Thyroid disease, Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid, Graves' disease, Mediastinal tumor, Mediastinum, Goitre


Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a common and debilitating manifestation of Graves disease (GD). Presently little is known about factors that may increase the risk of developing TAO among patients with GD.

Concepts: Hyperthyroidism, Goitre


Although it is well accepted that there is a close relationship between hypothyroidism and depression, previous studies provided inconsistent or even opposite results in whether subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) increased the risk of depression. One possible reason is that the etiology of SCH in these studies was not clearly distinguished. We therefore investigated the relationship between SCH resulting from 131I treatment of Graves' disease and depression.

Concepts: Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Thyroid disease, Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid, Goitre