SciCombinator

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Concept: Glycoproteins

169

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare celiac disease (CD)– specific antibody tests to determine if they could replace jejunal biopsy in patients with a high pretest probability of CD. METHODS: This retrospective study included sera from 149 CD patients and 119 controls, all with intestinal biopsy. All samples were analyzed for IgA and IgG antibodies against native gliadin (ngli) and deamidated gliadin peptides (dpgli), as well as for IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium. RESULTS: dpgli were superior to ngli for IgG antibody determination: 68% vs. 92% specificity and 79% vs. 85% sensitivity for ngli and dpgli, respectively. Positive (76% vs. 93%) and negative (72% vs. 83%) predictive values were also higher for dpgli than for ngli. Regarding IgA gliadin antibody determination, sensitivity improved from 61% to 78% with dpgli, while specificity and positive predictive value remained at 97% (P < 0.00001). A combination of four tests (IgA anti-dpgli, IgG anti-dpgli, IgA anti- tissue transglutaminase, and IgA anti-endomysium) yielded positive and negative predictive values of 99% and 100%, respectively and a likelihood ratio positive of 86 with a likelihood ratio negative of 0.00. Omitting the endomysium antibody determination still yielded positive and negative predictive values of 99% and 98%, respectively and a likelihood ratio positive of 87 with a likelihood ratio negative of 0.01. CONCLUSION: dpgli yielded superior results compared with ngli. A combination of three or four antibody tests including IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or IgA anti- endomysium permitted diagnosis or exclusion of CD without intestinal biopsy in a high proportion of patients (78%). Jejunal biopsy would be necessary in patients with discordant antibody results (22%). With this two-step procedure, only patients with no CD-specific antibodies would be missed.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Fc receptor, Glycoproteins, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value, Antibodies, Coeliac disease

158

Amyloid-reactive IgGs isolated from pooled blood of normal individuals (pAbs) have demonstrated clinical utility for amyloid diseases by in vivo targeting and clearing amyloidogenic proteins and peptides. We now report the following three novel findings on pAb conformer’s binding to amyloidogenic aggregates: 1) pAb aggregates have greater activity than monomers (HMW species > dimers > monomers), 2) pAbs interactions with amyloidogenic aggregates at least partially involves unconventional (non-CDR) interactions of F(ab) regions, and 3) pAb’s activity can be easily modulated by trace aggregates generated during sample processing. Specifically, we show that HMW aggregates and dimeric pAbs present in commercial preparations of pAbs, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), had up to ~200- and ~7-fold stronger binding to aggregates of Aβ and transthyretin (TTR) than the monomeric antibody. Notably, HMW aggregates were primarily responsible for the enhanced anti-amyloid activities of Aβ- and Cibacron blue-isolated IVIg IgGs. Human pAb conformer’s binding to amyloidogenic aggregates was retained in normal human sera, and mimicked by murine pAbs isolated from normal pooled plasmas. An unconventional (non-CDR) component to pAb’s activity was indicated from control human mAbs, generated against non-amyloid targets, binding to aggregated Aβ and TTR. Similar to pAbs, HMW and dimeric mAb conformers bound stronger than their monomeric forms to amyloidogenic aggregates. However, mAbs had lower maximum binding signals, indicating that pAbs were required to saturate a diverse collection of binding sites. Taken together, our findings strongly support further investigations on the physiological function and clinical utility of the inherent anti-amyloid activities of monomeric but not aggregated IgGs.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Protein, Glycoproteins, Amyloid, Dimer, Monomer, Intravenous immunoglobulin

152

Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) tend to have greatly elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). However, the role of IgE in the pathogenesis of AD is debated. This investigator-initiated open-label pilot study evaluates an anti-IgE-treatment approach by combining extracorporeal immunoadsorption and anti-IgE antibody omalizumab in 10 patients with severe, therapy-refractory AD. IgE levels decreased after immunoadsorption and decreased continuously in all patients during anti-IgE therapy. The reverse trend was observed during follow-up without treatment. In parallel with these observations, an improvement in AD was observed during the treatment period, with aggravation during follow-up. Further research is needed, based on the principle of reducing IgE levels in order to improve clinical symptoms, using a combination anti-IgE treatment approach, adjusted according to IgE levels.

Concepts: Immune system, Glycoproteins, Asthma, Hypersensitivity, Immunoglobulin E, Allergy, Omalizumab, Atopic dermatitis

125

In the post-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine era that began in the 1980’s, H. influenzae type a (Hia) emerged as a prominent cause of invasive disease in North American Aboriginal populations. To test whether a lack of naturally acquired antibodies may underlie increased rates of invasive Hia disease, we compared serum bactericidal activity against Hia and Hib and IgG and IgM against capsular polysaccharide between Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal healthy and immunocompromised adults. Both healthy and immunocompromised Aboriginal adults exhibited significantly higher bactericidal antibody titers against Hia than did non-Aboriginal adults (p = 0.042 and 0.045 respectively), with no difference in functional antibody activity against Hib. IgM concentrations against Hia were higher than IgG in most study groups; the inverse was true for antibody concentrations against Hib. Our results indicate that Aboriginal adults possess substantial serum bactericidal activity against Hia that is mostly due to IgM antibodies. The presence of sustained IgM against Hia suggests recent Hia exposure.

Concepts: Immune system, Glycoproteins, Immunology, Antigen, Antibodies, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus, Pasteurellaceae

45

We aimed to determine whether the levels of total serum IgM and IgG, together with specific antibodies against malondialdehyde-conjugated low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL), can improve cardiovascular risk discrimination.

Concepts: Immune system, Glycoproteins, Blood, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Immunology, Antibodies

32

The design of immunogens that elicit broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) has been a major obstacle to HIV-1 vaccine development. One approach to assess potential immunogens is to use mice expressing precursors of human bnAbs as vaccination models. The bnAbs of the VRC01-class derive from the IGHV1-2 immunoglobulin heavy chain and neutralize a wide spectrum of HIV-1 strains via targeting the CD4 binding site of the envelope glycoprotein gp120. We now describe a mouse vaccination model that allows a germline human IGHV1-2(∗)02 segment to undergo normal V(D)J recombination and, thereby, leads to the generation of peripheral B cells that express a highly diverse repertoire of VRC01-related receptors. When sequentially immunized with modified gp120 glycoproteins designed to engage VRC01 germline and intermediate antibodies, IGHV1-2(∗)02-rearranging mice, which also express a VRC01-antibody precursor light chain, can support the affinity maturation of VRC01 precursor antibodies into HIV-neutralizing antibody lineages.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Protein, Neutralizing antibody, Glycoproteins, Glycoprotein, Immunoglobulin light chain, Gp120

28

To study the prevalence of antibodies of IgA class against tissue transglutaminase (tTG), endomysium (EMA) and gliadin (AGA) in patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) and to characterize the patients clinically and neurophysiologically.

Concepts: Antibody, Glycoproteins, Medical terms, Coeliac disease, Transglutaminase, Tissue transglutaminase

28

A peroxidase-active hemin-aptamer was clicked onto an immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding aptamer. The resulting bifunctional aptamer was successfully used in a highly sensitive aptazyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ALONA) for the detection of IgE. The sensitivity of the assay is enhanced by isothermal amplification of the aptazyme followed by colorimetric detection of the aptazyme’s peroxidase activity, which can easily be evaluated even without advanced lab instruments.

Concepts: Immune system, Glycoproteins, Immunoglobulin E, Allergy, Peroxidase, Oligonucleotide, Isothermal process

27

Several neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) variants of an anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α humanized monoclonal IgG antibodies (mAbs) were developed but the effect of their differential FcRn binding affinities on pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior were difficult to be definitively measured in vivo due to formation of anti-therapeutic antibody (ATA). A semi-mechanistic model was developed to investigate the quantitative relationship between the FcRn binding affinity and PK of mAbs in cynomolgus monkey with the presence of ATA.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Fc receptor, Glycoproteins, Immunology, Immunoglobulin G, Antibodies, IgG

27

PURPOSE: To compare progressive dynamic, relative quantitative changes in glycans associated with retinal proteins of wild type (wt) and retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) mice during neonatal development and degeneration of retinae. METHODS: Proteins extracted from retinae of postnatal day 2 (PN2), PN7, PN14 wt and rd1 mice were labeled with Cy3-fluorescent dye. Glycome of these proteins was quantified relatively by lectin microarray technique. Net fluorescence emitted by individual complexes formed between forty five lectins and Cy3-labeled proteins was measured by evanescent-field-fluorescence-assisted microarray reader. RESULTS: GlcNAcβ1-oligomer and high-mannose/Manα1-6Man were major glycans associated with the proteins of PN2, PN7, PN14 wt and rd1 mice retinae. Gal/GalNAc/Man3-core-bi-/tri-antennary-complex; Sia2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc and high-mannose glycans were mainly conjugated to proteins from PN7 rd1 and PN14 wt retinae, respectively. With increasing neonatal age, mannosylated, GlcNAcβ, and sialylated (minor component) glycans were increased and fucosylated GlcNAc/Galβ glycans were decreased significantly in wt retinal proteins. This trend was less evident in PN14 rd1 retinal proteins. Mouse retina was almost devoid of Siaα2-6 (except WGA bound Sia), Fucα1-2 and Gal/GalNAc containing glycans. STL reacting GlcNAc oligomers were high in PN2 rd1 retinae. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative dynamic, relative variation in high-mannose and GlcNAc glycans, Siaα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc associated with proteins from PN2, PN7, PN14 wt and rd1 mice retinae suggested that these glycans participate in retinal development and degeneration and may be used as markers for retinal electrophysiological integrity during transplantation/therapy studies; Siaα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc specific Agrocybe cylindracea lectin and other lectins may be used to enrich/purify retinal ribbon synapse glycoproteins and rhodopsin. Further investigations are required.

Concepts: Proteins, Gene, Glycoproteins, Retina, Relative, Carbohydrates, Glycoprotein, Lectin