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Concept: Gingiva

272

Periodontitis is common in the elderly and may become more common in Alzheimer’s disease because of a reduced ability to take care of oral hygiene as the disease progresses. Elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria are associated with an increased systemic pro-inflammatory state. Elsewhere raised serum pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. We hypothesized that periodontitis would be associated with increased dementia severity and a more rapid cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to determine if periodontitis in Alzheimer’s disease is associated with both increased dementia severity and cognitive decline, and an increased systemic pro inflammatory state. In a six month observational cohort study 60 community dwelling participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s Disease were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for systemic inflammatory markers. Dental health was assessed by a dental hygienist, blind to cognitive outcomes. All assessments were repeated at six months. The presence of periodontitis at baseline was not related to baseline cognitive state but was associated with a six fold increase in the rate of cognitive decline as assessed by the ADAS-cog over a six month follow up period. Periodontitis at baseline was associated with a relative increase in the pro-inflammatory state over the six month follow up period. Our data showed that periodontitis is associated with an increase in cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s Disease, independent to baseline cognitive state, which may be mediated through effects on systemic inflammation.

Concepts: Periodontitis, Gingiva, Dental hygienist, Alzheimer's disease, Cohort study, Cognition, Periodontal disease, Inflammation

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BACKGROUND: There are scarce evidences that evaluated the impact of periodontal disease on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) taking marginal gingival alterations into consideration. Thus, this study aimed to verify the association between OHRQoL and gingival enlargement and gingival bleeding in subjects under fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT). METHODS: 330 participants under FOT for at least 6 months were examined by a single, calibrated examiner for periodontal variables. Socio-economic background, body mass index, time with orthodontic appliances, dental aesthetic index and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. OHRQoL was evaluated using the oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire. The assessment of associations used unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Higher impacts on the OHIP-14 overall were observed in subjects who presented higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement (RR 2.83; 95% CI 2.60-3.09), were non-whites (RR 1.29; 95% CI 1.15-1.45), had household income lower than five national minimum wages (RR 1.85; 95% CI 1.30-2.61), presented body mass index > 25 (RR 1.14; 95% CI 1.01-1.29), andshowed a dental aesthetic index > 30 (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.20-1.46) . CONCLUSIONS: Anterior gingival enlargement seems to influence the OHRQoL in subjects receiving orthodontic treatment.

Concepts: Dental floss, Regression analysis, Gingiva, Periodontal disease, Periodontitis, Oral hygiene, Dentistry, Minimum wage

152

Plasminogen deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease, which is associated with aggressive periodontitis and gingival enlargement. Previously described treatments of plasminogen deficiency associated periodontitis have shown limited success. This is the first case report indicating a successful therapy approach consisting of a non-surgical supra- and subgingival debridement in combination with an adjunctive systemic antibiotic therapy and a strict supportive periodontal regimen over an observation period of 4 years.

Concepts: Success, Phage therapy, Periodontal disease, Gingiva, Antibiotic, Medicine, Periodontology, Periodontitis

147

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are proteins that stimulate the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. These proteins have been described in many pathologic and inflammatory conditions, but their involvement in the development of periodontitis has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compared the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins, involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, by imunnostained inflammatory and endothelial cells in periodontal disease and healthy gingival tissues. Gingival tissue samples were divided as follows: 30 samples with chronic periodontitis, 30 with chronic gingivitis, and 30 of healthy gingiva. Results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests (p=0.01). Inflammatory and endothelial cells were found to express these proteins. Periodontitis showed median percentage of HIF-1α-positive cells of 39.6%, 22.0% in cases of gingivitis and 0.9% in the healthy gingiva group (p=0.001). For VEGF, median percentage of immunopositive cells was 68.7% for periodontitis, 66.1% in cases for gingivitis, and 19.2% for healthy gingival specimens (p<0.001). Significant correlation between VEGF and HIF-1α was also observed in healthy gingiva (p<0.001).The increased expression of HIF-1αα and VEGF in periodontitis, compared to gingivitis and healthy gingiva, suggests possible activation of the HIF-1α pathway in advanced periodontal disease. The correlation between HIF-1α and VEGF expression in healthy gingiva suggests a physiological function for these proteins in conditions of homeostasis. In periodontal disease, HIF-1 and VEGF expression may be regulated by other factors, in addition to hypoxia, such as bacterial endotoxins and inflammatory cytokines.

Concepts: Oral hygiene, Gingival fibers, Angiogenesis, Periodontology, Gingivitis, Periodontal disease, Gingiva, Periodontitis

28

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIII (periodontitis type) is a distinct form of EDS characterized by periodontal disease leading to precocious dental loss and a spectrum of joint and skin manifestations. EDS type VIII is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern; however, the mutated gene has not been identified. There are insufficient data on the spectrum of clinical manifestations and natural history of the disorder, and only a limited number of patients and pedigrees with this condition have been reported. We present a four-generation EDS type VIII kindred and show that EDS VIII is clinically variable and although some cases lack the associated skin and joint manifestations, microscopic evidence of collagen disorganization is detectable.We further propose that the diagnosis of EDS type VIII should be considered in familial forms of periodontitis, even when the associated skin and joint manifestations are unconvincing for the diagnosis of a connective tissue disorder. This novel observation highlights the uncertainty of using connective tissue signs in clinical practice to diagnose EDS type VIII.

Concepts: Periodontitis, Gingiva, Periodontal disease, Bone, Marfan syndrome, Connective tissue, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Collagen

28

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis (CP) patients to assess whether cytokine profiles distinguish patients with RA and patients with CP while using healthy patients as background controls. Methods: A total of 49 patients, 17 patients with RA (three males and 14 females; mean age: 47.82 ± 10.74 years), 16 patients with CP (10 males and six females; mean age: 44.00 ± 7.00 years), and 16 controls (eight males and eight females; mean age: 28.06 ± 6.18 years) were enrolled. Patients with RA were under the supervision of rheumatologists; 15 of the patients with RA were being treated with methotrexate-sulfasalazine combined therapy, and two of the patients were being treated with leflunomid therapy. Periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level) were recorded. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined in GCF and IL-1β and IL-10 in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: There were significant differences found among RA, CP, and control groups for all periodontal parameters (P <0.05). The total amount and concentration of GCF IL-1 β, IL-4, IL-10, and TNF-α were similar in RA and CP patients (P >0.05). Although the total amount and concentration of serum IL-10 was not significantly different among the groups (P >0.05), serum IL-1β was significantly lower in the RA group compared to CP patients and controls and was higher in GCF of the RA group compared to the CP group. Conclusions: Although clinical periodontal disease parameters indicated more severe periodontal disease in CP compared to RA patients, immunologic evaluation did not reveal consistent results regarding proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. This might be a result of the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and rheumatoid agents by patients with RA.

Concepts: Anti-inflammatory, Gingiva, Inflammation, Antibody, Periodontology, Periodontal disease, Periodontitis, Rheumatoid arthritis

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OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible immunologic relationships between sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and periodontal inflammation and its impact on serum cytokines. DESIGN: Twenty-five Brazilian children of African descent were involved in this study and divided in two groups: SCA (n=10): confirmed diagnosis of homozygous anaemia; and CTR-control (n=15): no sickle anaemia. Clinical examination included comprehensive medical (routine physical evaluation) and periodontal exams: plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BoP), and haematological analysis. Serum samples were collected for cytokine evaluation by microarray. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were compared statistically (alpha=5%). RESULTS: The higher values of PI and BoP were similar for both groups (p>0.05) confirming a diagnosis of generalized gingivitis for all individuals. Intergroup analysis showed higher levels of interferon gamma (IFNγ), tumour necrosis alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-4, -5, -8, -10 and 13 only in the SCA group (p<0.05). In addition, PI was negatively correlated with IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-13, while BoP was positively correlated with IL-10. CONCLUSION: Within the limits of the present study, it was concluded that SCA increase the levels of serum cytokines regardless of the presence of periodontal inflammation. Therefore, a direct immunological relationship between SCA and periodontal inflammation was not established.

Concepts: Sickle-cell disease, Red blood cell, Gingiva, Cytokines, Interferon, Cytokine, Immune system, Interleukin

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Background: Concerns have been raised that use of surface-modified implants may result in peri-implant infection and marked marginal bone loss over time. Purpose: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the survival rate, marginal bone, and soft tissue conditions at surface-modified titanium dental implants after 10 years of function. Material and Methods: Forty-six totally and partially edentulous patients were provided with 121 Brånemark oxidized implants (TiUnite™, Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden). Twenty-four (20%) implants were immediate loaded and 97 (80%) were placed using a two-stage procedure. A total of 22 single, 23 partial, and 7 total restorations were delivered. Clinical and radiographic checkups were carried out after 3, 6, 12 months, and thereafter annually up to 10 years. At these occasions, oral hygiene was evaluated and peri-implant mucosa examined by probing. If needed, patients were enrolled in an individual program for hygiene controls and professional cleaning. Marginal bone loss was evaluated in intraoral radiographs taken at baseline and after 1, 5, and 10 years of function. Results: One (0.8%) implant failed after 8 years giving a Survival Rate (SR) of 99.2% after 10 years. A total of 11 sites (9.2%) showed bleeding on probing (BP) at the 10th annual checkup. The mean marginal bone loss was 0.7 ± 1.35 mm based on 106 readable pairs of radiographs from baseline and from the 10th annual examination. Twelve (11.3%) implants showed more than 2 mm bone loss, and five (4.7%) showed more than 3 mm of bone loss after 10 years. For the latter, all patients were smokers and had poor or acceptable oral hygiene. All five implants with >3 mm bone loss showed BP and two (1.9%) showed suppuration from the pocket. For the remaining seven implants with more than 2 mm bone loss, no correlation to smoking, oral hygiene, bleeding, or pus could be seen. Time/marginal bone level plots of the 12 implants with more than 2 mm bone loss after 10 years, showed minor changes from the first annual checkup except for the two infected implants. Conclusions: It is concluded that good long-term clinical outcomes can be obtained with oxidized titanium dental implants. Only 1.9% of examined implants showed significant marginal bone loss together with bleeding and suppuration after 10 years of function.

Concepts: Per-Ingvar Brånemark, Periodontology, Nobel Biocare, Gingiva, Dental implant

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Emingil G, Han B, Özdemir G, Tervahartiala T, Vural C, Atilla G, Baylas H, Sorsa T. The effect of azithromycin, as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal treatment, on microbiological parameters and gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers in generalized aggressive periodontitis. J Periodont Res 2012; 47: 729-739. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S Background and Objective:  To study the effectiveness of azithromycin in combination with nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical and microbiological parameters, and on the MMP-8 and TIMP-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid, over a 6-mo time-period in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Material and Methods:  Thirty-two patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. They were randomly assigned to azithromycin or placebo groups (500 mg once daily for 3 d). Probing depth, clinical attachment levels, presence of bleeding on probing and plaque were recorded. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained from one single-rooted tooth, while microbiological samples were obtained from two single-rooted teeth, all with a probing depth of ≥ 6 mm. Microbiological parameters were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and total bacteria. Gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers were determined by immunofluorometric assay and ELISA. Results:  All clinical parameters improved, and microbiological parameters and gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8 levels significantly decreased, over the 6-mo period (p < 0.05); both groups demonstrated similar improvements. The azithromycin group presented a higher percentage of deep pockets resolved (probing depth reduction of ≥ 3 mm from baseline) compared with the placebo group at 1 mo (p < 0.05). Conclusion:  Adjunctive azithromycin therapy provides no additional benefit over nonsurgical periodontal treatment on clinical parameters, microbiological parameters and gingival crevicular fluid biochemical markers investigated in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis.

Concepts: Aggressive periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Dentistry, Placebo, Periodontitis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Gingiva, Periodontology

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Sturge-Weber syndrome is a nonhereditary congenital condition characterized by leptomeningeal and facial skin angiomatous malformation following the trigeminal nerve path. The intraoral angiomatosis are presented in 40% of cases and results in an important periodontal alteration, increasing the risk of bleeding during dental procedures. A 43-year-old male patient presented with port wine stain on the right side of the face, the entire hard and soft palates, the alveolar ridge, and buccal mucosa, and had an excessive accumulation of calcified masses in both supragingival and subgingival sites, with swelling and generalized inflammation throughout the gingiva and alveolar mucosa. He reported not having sanitized the area for years for fear of bleeding. Periodontal management, to remove calculus and to control gingivitis initiated in the supragingival region and gradually reaching the subgingival region to control oral microbiota, was performed with mild bleeding. The redness of the staining greatly diminished with time and the extreme halitosis of the patient also improved sharply leading to a dramatic improvement in quality of life. Ambulatory care is a feasible alternative for periodontal management that within safety limits for bleeding risks reduces the operational cost.

Concepts: Mouth, Periodontitis, Gingiva, Phakomatoses, William Allen Sturge, Frederick Parkes Weber, Sturge-Weber syndrome, Port-wine stain