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Concept: Ginger

28

Abstract Advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, and antiglycation properties of crude ethanolic extracts of 10 common culinary herbs and spices from Mauritius were investigated in vitro. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. Allium sativum had the highest TPC (3.1 mg GAE/mL), whereas Allium cepa L. showed the highest radical scavenging capacity (72%) and Zingiber officinale had the most potent ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (2.99 mg AAE/mL). In contrast, Thymus vulgaris and Petroselinum crispum had the most potent antiglycation activity with IC(50) values of 21.8 and 200 mg/mL, respectively. There was no significant correlation between TPC (r=0.001), FRAP (r=0.161), and the antiglycation activity (r=0.034) for the extracts studied. Therefore, the results showed that antiglycation properties of plant-derived extracts cannot always be attributed to their phenolic content or antioxidant potential.

Concepts: Oxidative stress, Oxidative phosphorylation, Garlic, Allium, Ginger, Onion, Spice, Alliaceae

27

The study was carried out to determine the effect of ginger on the plasma pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin and Isoniazid in a rat model in phase 1. The effects of the herb on the penetration of ciproflacin and Isoniazid into the lung tissues were also determined in phase 2. In phase 1, Albino rats of both sexes (n = 20) were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats per group. Two groups received oral ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg) and isoniazid (15 mg/kg). Other groups were fed with ginger (5 mg/kg) for 10 days followed by the drug administration on the 11th day. Blood samples were collected from each group at 0-, 0.5-, 1-, 2-, 5-, 8-, 12-, and 24-hour intervals. Plasma concentrations of the drugs were determined by a spectrophotometric method and the pharmacokinetic parameters determined using noncompartmental method as implemented in the winNonlin program. In phase 2, where the effects of the herb on the penetration of the drugs were determined, the concentrations of ciprofloxacin and isoniazid attained in the lung fluid of rats in the presence and absence of the herb were compared after a single oral dose of the drugs used in the same dose range as in phase 1. In the first phase, treatment with ginger significantly increased the area under the concentration-time curve of ciprofloxacin, whereas Vz and Cl were decreased. Ginger significantly decreased the area under the concentration-time curve of isoniazid, whereas Vz and Cl were increased. Ginger enhanced the penetration of ciprofloxacin and Isoniazid into the lung tissues; however, their rates of penetration were delayed.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Rat, Pharmacokinetics, Herb, Ginger, Zingiberaceae, Spice, Zingiber

27

The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+)-germacrene D synthase and (S)-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (-)-caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+)-α-turmerone and (+)-β-turmerone, are produced from (-)-α-zingiberene and (-)-β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase.

Concepts: Terpene, Ginger, Rhizome, Curcuma, Turmeric, Zingiberaceae, Zingiber, Zingiber zerumbet

26

The overall objective of this study was to develop a decontamination method against microorganisms in cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton) seeds using ozone as a decontaminating agent. Ozone treatment was conducted 3 times, at 24-h intervals, and the parameters of the process were determined assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols): ozone concentration 160 to 165.0 g/m(3) ; flow rate 0.1 L/min; pressure 0.5 atm; time 30 min. After each step of decontamination, the microbiological profile of the cardamom seeds was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the total polyphenol content (TPC), composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were determined. This study shows that extract from cardamom seeds after ozone treatment is characterized by a better radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 24.18 ± 0.04 mg/mL) than the control sample (IC50 = 31.94 ± 0.05 mg/mL). The extract from cardamom seeds after ozone treatment showed an improved FRAP activity as well (613.64 ± 49.79 mmol TE/g compared to 480.29 ± 30.91 mmol TE/g of control sample). The TPC and the total antioxidant capacity were negatively affected, respectively, 41.2% and 16.2%, compared to the control sample.

Concepts: Microbiology, Antioxidant, Polyphenol antioxidant, Ginger, Zingiberaceae, Spice, Cardamom, Elettaria

25

Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, plant-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy. In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5ppt for 90 and 30min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e. 7.5ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish.

Concepts: Disease, Parasites, Guppy, Ginger, Tetrahydrogestrinone, Poeciliidae, Poecilia, Zingiber

25

Members of the family Zingiberaceae including turmeric, ginger, Javanese ginger, and galangal have been used for centuries in traditional medicine. Preclinical studies of Zingiberaceae extracts have shown analgesic properties. This study aims to systematically review and meta-analyze whether extracts from Zingiberaceae are clinically effective hypoalgesic agents.

Concepts: Systematic review, Analgesic, Meta-analysis, Ginger, Zingiberales, Turmeric, Zingiberaceae

18

The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger is an important kitchen spice and also possess a myriad health benefits. The rhizomes have been used since antiquity in the various traditional systems of medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, catarrh, nervous diseases, gingivitis, toothache, asthma, stroke and diabetes. Ginger is also used as home remedy and is of immense value in treating various gastric ailments like constipation, dyspepsia, belching, bloating, gastritis, epigastric discomfort, gastric ulcerations, indigestion, nausea and vomiting and scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal uses. Ginger is also shown to be effective in preventing gastric ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs like indomethacin, aspirin], reserpine, ethanol, stress (hypothermic and swimming), acetic acid and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric ulcerations in laboratory animals. Various preclinical and clinical studies have also shown ginger to possess anti-emetic effects against different emetogenic stimuli. However, conflicting reports especially in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and motion sickness prevent us from drawing any firm conclusion on its effectiveness as a broad spectrum anti-emetic. Ginger has been shown to possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant; inhibition of lipid peroxidation and that these properties might have contributed to the observed gastroprotective effects. This review summarizes the various gastroprotective effects of ginger and also emphasizes on aspects that warranty future research to establish its activity and utility as a gastroprotective agent in humans.

Concepts: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Helicobacter pylori, Aspirin, Dyspepsia, Nausea, Ginger

11

The aim of this clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of curcuminoid complex extract from turmeric rhizome with turmeric volatile oil (CuraMed®) and its combination with boswellic acid extract from Indian frankincense root (Curamin®) vs placebo for the treatment of 40- to 70-year-old patients with osteoarthritis (OA).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Placebo, Essential oil, Ginger, Rhizome, Turmeric, Curcumin, Frankincense

11

Ginger (Zingiber officinale), despite being a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, is well known to contain a number of potentially bioactive phytochemicals having valuable medicinal properties. Although recent studies have emphasized their benefits in Alzheimer’s disease, limited information is available on the possible mechanism by which it renders anti-Alzheimer activity. Therefore, the present study seeks to employ molecular docking studies to investigate the binding interactions between active ginger components and various anti-Alzheimer drug targets. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking of 12 ligands with 13 different target proteins using AutoDock 4.2 program. Docking protocol was validated by re-docking of all native co-crystallized ligands into their original binding cavities exhibiting a strong correlation coefficient value (r (2)=0.931) between experimentally reported and docking predicted activities. This value suggests that the approach could be a promising computational tool to aid optimization of lead compounds obtained from ginger. Analysis of binding energy, predicted inhibition constant, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions of ligands with target receptors revealed acetylcholinesterase as most promising, while c-Jun N-terminal kinase was recognized as the least favorable anti-Alzheimer’s drug target. Common structural requirements include hydrogen bond donor/acceptor area, hydrophobic domain, carbon spacer, and distal hydrophobic domain flanked by hydrogen bond donor/acceptor moieties. In addition, drug-likeness score and molecular properties responsible for a good pharmacokinetic profile were calculated by Osiris property explorer and Molinspiration online toolkit, respectively. None of the compounds violated Lipinski’s rule of five, making them potentially promising drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

Concepts: Protein, Pharmacology, Atom, Enzyme inhibitor, Drug discovery, Medicinal chemistry, Ginger, Molecular property

10

In recent years, metabolic syndromes (MetSs), including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, have become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Accumulating data have suggested that traditional herbs might be able to provide a wide range of remedies in prevention and treatment of MetSs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been documented to ameliorate hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These beneficial effects are mediated by transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor κB. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity and related complications in MetS and discusses its potential mechanisms of action. This review provides guidance for further applications of ginger for personalized nutrition and medicine.

Concepts: Protein, Nutrition, Adenosine triphosphate, Enzyme, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Metabolic syndrome, Ginger