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Concept: Gh

217

BACKGROUND:Case reports indicate that the use of fluoroquinolones may lead to acute kidney injury. We studied the association between the use of oral fluoroquinolones and acute kidney injury, and we examined interaction with renin-angiotensin-system blockers. METHODS:We formed a nested cohort of men aged 40-85 enrolled in the United States IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database between 2001 and 2011. We defined cases as men admitted to hospital for acute kidney injury, and controls were admitted to hospital with a different presenting diagnosis. Using risk-set sampling, we matched 10 controls to each case based on hospital admission, calendar time (within 6 wk), cohort entrance (within 6 wk) and age (within 5 yr). We used conditional logistic regression to assess the rate ratio (RR) for acute kidney injury with current, recent and past use of fluoroquinolones, adjusted by potential confounding variables. We repeated this analysis with amoxicillin and azithromycin as controls. We used a case-time-control design for our secondary analysis. RESULTS:We identified 1292 cases and 12 651 matched controls. Current fluoroquinolone use had a 2.18-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-2.73) higher adjusted RR of acute kidney injury compared with no use. There was no association between acute kidney injury and recent (adjusted RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.66-1.16) or past (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.66-1.12) use. The absolute in crease in acute kidney injury was 6.5 events per 10 000 person-years. We observed 1 additional case per 1529 patients given fluoroquinolones or per 3287 prescriptions dispensed. The dual use of fluoroquinolones and renin- angiotensin-system blockers had an RR of 4.46 (95% CI 2.84-6.99) for acute kidney injury. Our case-time-control analysis confirmed an increased risk of acute kidney injury with fluoroquinolone use (RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.52-3.18). The use of amoxicillin or azithro mycin was not associated with acute kidney injury. INTERPRETATION:We found a small, but significant, increased risk of acute kidney injury among men with the use of oral fluoroquinolones, as well as a significant interaction between the concomitant use of fluoroquinolones and renin- angiotensin-system blockers.

Concepts: Logistic regression, Acute kidney injury, Confounding, Trigraph, Gh, Case, Statistical terminology, Quinolone

206

BACKGROUND: The benefits of exercise are well established but one major barrier for many is time. It has been proposed that short period resistance training (RT) could play a role in weight control by increasing resting energy expenditure (REE) but the effects of different kinds of RT has not been widely reported. METHODS: We tested the acute effects of high-intensity interval resistance training (HIRT) vs. traditional resistance training (TT) on REE and respiratory ratio (RR) at 22 hours post-exercise. In two separate sessions, seventeen trained males carried out HIRT and TT protocols. The HIRT technique consists of: 6 repetitions, 20 seconds rest, 2/3 repetitions, 20 secs rest, 2/3 repetitions with 2[prime]30[prime][prime] rest between sets, three exercises for a total of 7 sets. TT consisted of eight exercises of 4 sets of 8–12 repetitions with one/two minutes rest with a total amount of 32 sets. We measured basal REE and RR (TT0 and HIRT0) and 22 hours after the training session (TT22 and HIRT22). RESULTS: HIRT showed a greater significant increase (p < 0.001) in REE at 22 hours compared to TT (HIRT22 2362 +/- 118 Kcal/d vs TT22 1999 +/- 88 Kcal/d). RR at HIRT22 was significantly lower (0.798 +/- 0.010) compared to both HIRT0 (0.827 +/- 0.006) and TT22 (0.822 +/- 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that shorter HIRT sessions may increase REE after exercise to a greater extent than TT and may reduce RR hence improving fat oxidation. The shorter exercise time commitment may help to reduce one major barrier to exercise.

Concepts: Physical exercise, Exercise, Training, Strength training, Weight training, Trigraph, Gh, Order theory

161

ProCESS Investigators, Yealy DM, Kellum JA, Huang DT, Barnato AE, Weissfeld LA, Pike F, Terndrup T, Wang HE, Hou PC, LoVecchio F, Filbin MR, Shapiro NI, Angus DC. A randomized trial of protocol-based care for early septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014; 370:1683-93.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Shock, Trigraph, Gh, Septic shock, Sepsis, Chinese-language surnames

31

U.S. sewage sludges were analyzed for 58 regulated and non-regulated elements by ICP-MS and electron microscopy to explore opportunities for removal and recovery. Sludge/water distribution coefficients (KD, L/kg dry weight) spanned five orders of magnitude, indicating significant metal accumulation in biosolids. Rare-earth elements and minor metals (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) detected in sludges showed enrichment factors (EFs) near unity, suggesting dust or soils as likely dominant sources. In contrast, most platinum group elements (i.e., Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt) showed high EF and KD values, indicating anthropogenic sources. Numerous metallic and metal oxide colloids (<100-500 nm diameter) were detected; the morphology of abundant aggregates of primary particles measuring <100 nm provided clues to their origin. For a community of 1 million people, metals in biosolids were valued at up to US$13 million annually. A model incorporating a parameter (KD x EF x $Value) to capture the relative potential for economic value from biosolids revealed the identity of the 13 most lucrative elements (Ag, Cu, Au, P, Fe, Pd, Mn, Zn, Ir, Al, Cd, Ti, Ga and Cr) with a combined value of US $280/ton of sludge.

Concepts: Metal, Sewage treatment, Trigraph, Value, Gh, Terbium, Platinum group, Ytterbium

28

The aim of this paper was to determine the content of minor and major elements in apples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Prior to ICP-AES measurement, dried apples were digested in a microwave assisted digestion system. The differences in the measured element concentrations after application of open and closed microwave system as sample preparation procedures are discussed. In whole apples, flesh and peel Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were analysed after optimisation and validating the analytical method using ICP-AES. The accuracy of the method determined by spiking experiments was very good (recoveries 88-115%) and the limits of detection of elements of interest were from 0.01 up to 14.7 μg g(-1). The reference ranges determined in all apple samples are 39-47 mg g(-1) for K, 9-14 mg g(-1) for Na, 3-7 mg g(-1) for Mg, 3-7 μg g(-1) for Zn, 0.7-2.8 μg g(-1) for Sr. The range of Mn in peel 4-6 μg g(-1) is higher compared to whole apple from 0.7 to 1.7 μg g(-1). Cd is found only in peel, in the concentration range of 0.4-1.1 μg g(-1).

Concepts: Electromagnetic radiation, Chemistry, Chemical element, Trigraph, Gh, Digestion, Atomic emission spectroscopy, Emission spectroscopy

28

Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John’s wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the μg/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test.

Concepts: Chemical element, Trigraph, Gh, Analysis of variance, Herbalism, Medicinal plants, Herbs, Matricaria recutita

27

To investigate the temperature rise (TR) on the external root surface while preparing a staging platform, for removing intra-canal fractured instruments, using Gates Glidden (GG) drills.

Concepts: Trigraph, Gh

27

To assess the efficacy and safety, essential (Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Se, Zn), toxic (As, Br, Hg, Sb,) and other elements (Ba, Ce, Cs, Eu, Rb, Sc) were determined in Emblica officinalis (EO), Terminalia belerica (TB) and Terminalia chebula (TC) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These herbs contain K as a major element, while Co, Cr and Na in EO, Fe, K and Mn in TB and Cl and Zn in TC are the highest.

Concepts: Chemical element, Neutron, Trigraph, Gh, Neutron activation analysis, Terminalia chebula, Neutron activation, Terminalia

27

Tourette syndrome (TS) is an etiologically heterogeneous disorder, the pathogenesis of which is incompletely understood. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is involved in regulation of developmental processes and cellular differentiation, in transcription regulation, in DNA repair, and in cell death. However, the relationship between TS and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PARP1 is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that whether the PARP1 SNP, rs1805404 (c.243C>T, Asp81Asp), had an association with TS. A case-control experiment was designed to test this hypothesis. 123 TS children and 122 normal children were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for the detection of the PARP1 SNP, rs1805404, in TS patients and normal children. The data showed that there is a significant difference in genotype distributions between these two groups. The CT genotype was a risk factor for TS with an odds ratio of 2.34 for the CT versus TT genotype (95 % CI 1.16-4.74). The data also showed this SNP had an association with TS under recessive model (P = 0.0426), and TT genotype had a protective effect against TS with an odds ratio of 0.50 (95 % CI 0.26-0.98). The findings of this study suggested that variants in the PARP1 gene might play a role in susceptibility to TS.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Gene expression, Polymerase chain reaction, Molecular biology, Trigraph, Gh, Thermus aquaticus

27

Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) control (no ZH); and 2) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ≤ 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and gross energy were lower (P ≤ 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ≤ 0.04) NDF and gross energy intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ≤ 0.03) was lower for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and EE digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ≤ 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients.

Concepts: Nutrition, Nutrient, Trigraph, Gh, Block, Domestic sheep, Blocking, Block design