Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: German Brazilian


Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil.

Concepts: Biodiversity, Atlantic Ocean, Forest, Brazil, Montane, Florianópolis, German Brazilian, Joinville


A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395-1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America.

Concepts: Chronology, House, Radiocarbon dating, Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, German Brazilian, Joinville, Yaodong


This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics.

Concepts: Endangered species, Brazil, German language, States of Brazil, Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, German Brazilian, Joinville



The study aimed to compare the experiences with the organization of universal public healthcare systems in relation to health promotion in primary care units in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and Toronto, Ontario, Canada. This was a descriptive exploratory study with a qualitative approach in primary care units. Data were collected with semi-structured interviews containing questions on health promotion practices, with 25 health professionals in Florianópolis and 10 in Toronto. The data were discussed using thematic analysis, identifying the practices, difficulties, and facilities in health promotion. In the two cities, 60% of health professionals and health administrators had not received any specific knowledge on health promotion during their training. As for health promotion skills, health professionals in Toronto identified them with autonomy and social determinants, while in Florianópolis they were related to health education and community participation. In both cities, health promotion practices are targeted to individual and collective activities. The motivation to act comes from interdisciplinarity and the demands raised by the population. Health promotion is a relevant form of care and stimulus for individual and community autonomy, in light of social determinants. Such practices aim at comprehensive health for the community, but there are limits in the teams that still conduct disease-centered activities. Resources are limited, requiring inter-sector actions to improve quality of life. Healthcare centers on the hegemonic model, and progress is needed to achieve a positive approach to health and social determinants.

Concepts: Medicine, Universal health care, Public health, German language, Santa Catarina, White Brazilian, Florianópolis, German Brazilian


We describe a new species of Brachycephalus from municipality of São Francisco do Sul and municipality of Itapoá, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, southern Atlantic Forest. The new species is known from six localities from near sea level up to 250 meters and represents the first record of a “pumpkin-toadlet” occurring in the lowlands. Morphological traits and phylogenetic analysis of a fragment the 16S mtDNA gene place the new species in the Brachycephalus pernix group. The new species is supported by external morphology, osteology, advertisement call, and mtDNA divergence. It is characterized, among other traits by a dorsal body color dark green with a dark brown vertebral stripe, and an orange background; snout-vent length of 9.2-10.8 mm in males and 11.1-12.4 mm in females; and advertisement call short (0.02-0.03 seconds), composed of one high-frequency note (dominant frequency 6.6-7.3 kHz). We observed synchronized alternation in the emission of vocalizations among neighbor males, indicating that males of the new species are able to hear and use vocalizations to interact with each other. We provide descriptions of clutch, eggs, and juvenile and observations on parental care. The new species has not been recorded within any protected area and can be threatened by human-induced habitat loss and modification.

Concepts: Orange, Brazil, German language, States of Brazil, Santa Catarina, White Brazilian, Florianópolis, German Brazilian


Salmonellosis is a disease with a high incidence worldwide, and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most clinically important serovars. We report here the draft genome sequences of 20 S. Typhimurium strains isolated from swine in Santa Catarina, Brazil. These draft genomes will improve our understanding of S. Typhimurium in Brazil.

Concepts: Human Genome Project, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella, German language, 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack, White Brazilian, Florianópolis, German Brazilian


A new species of Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae), Stilestrongylus rolandoi n. sp., is described from specimens collected from the small intestine of the rodent Euryoryzomys russatus in the Atlantic Forest (Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil). The genus Stilestrongylus includes 23 species, which parasitize rodents occurring in the Neotropical region. Stilestrongylus aureus (Durette-Desset & Sutton, 1985) from Argentina, S. azarai (Durette-Desset & Sutton, 1985) from Argentina, S. flavescens (Sutton & Durette-Desset, 1991) from Uruguay, S. franciscanus (Digiani & Durette-Desset, 2002) from Argentina, S. gracielae (Digiani & Durette-Desset, 2006) from Argentina, and S. oryzomysi (Sutton & Durette-Desset, 1991) from Argentina are closely related to Stilestrongylus rolandoi n. sp., all having caudal bursa patterns of types 1-4 in one of the lobes. Stilestrongylus rolandoi n. sp. is distinguished from the aforementioned species by its ray 6 being short in relation to rays 4 and 5, which are long and robust, and by having caudal bursa patterns of types 1-4 in both lobes. The new species has 27 ridges in the mid-body in males, and 24 in females, and has one of the highest ratios of spicule length to body length (21-33%) in this genus.

Concepts: Atlantic Ocean, Rodent, Brazil, Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, German Brazilian, Joinville, Palhoça


CRF31_BC is an HIVs-1 recombinant form very prevalent in the southernmost capital city of Brazil, Porto Alegre. Recent studies have been describing a growing number of cases of infection by CRF31_BC in other Brazilian cities and countries, suggesting a process of expansion of this strain. Aiming to describe the city of origin, dispersion routes and demographic history of CRF31_BC, this study analyzed all HIV-1 CRF31_BC and Brazilian BC mosaic publicly available sequences. CRF31_BC classification was performed by bootscanning and tree reconstruction methods. Bayesian phylogeographic and phylodynamic model approaches were used to reconstruct the spatiotemporal and demographic history of 95 sequences identified as CRF31_BC-like. Porto Alegre was estimated to be the origin and center of the dispersion of the CRF31_BC for most of the analyzed locations. However, some viral transitions independent from Porto Alegre were observed in other cities from the Rio Grande do Sul state and also in other Brazilian states. The estimated CRF31_BC epidemic growth rate was similar to subtype C and B in Brazil. Our findings suggest that CRF31_BC, although mostly prevalent in south region, is circulating nation-wide with some localities presenting autochthonous transmissions.

Concepts: Brazil, Recife, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, States of Brazil, Portuguese Brazilian, Italian Brazilian, German Brazilian


The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is considered the primary insect pest in broiler farms in Brazil. In this study, we characterized the susceptibility of A. diaperinus populations from broiler farms of southern Brazil to cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos. Larvae and adults of A. diaperinus were exposed to these technical insecticides diluted in acetone in residual bioassays. A geographic variation in the susceptibility of larvae and adults of A. diaperinus to both insecticides was detected. The larval LC50 for cypermethrin ranged from 0.43 to 7.33 µg a.i./cm2. Two populations from Santa Catarina state presented higher resistance ratios of 13.6- and 17-fold. When adults were exposed to cypermethrin, the LC50 ranged from 0.46 to 4.93 µg a.i./cm2, with population SC-3 from Santa Catarina having lower susceptibility (resistance ratio of 10.7-fold). When exposed to chlorpyrifos, A. diaperinus larvae present LC50 values ranging from 0.21 to 4.30 µg a.i./cm2. Larvae from Paraná and Santa Catarina (SC-1 population) presented the highest resistance ratios, ranging from 10- to 20-fold. In adults, the LC50 of chlorpyrifos ranged from 0.17 to 5.30 µg a.i./cm2, showing a maximum resistance ratio of 31-fold in a population from Paraná state. Based on LC99 values, candidate diagnostic concentrations of 15 and 12 µg a.i./cm2 of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, respectively, were also estimated for the resistance monitoring of A. diaperinus in Brazil. The implications of these results in Insect Resistance Management are discussed.

Concepts: Insect, Beetle, German language, Insecticide, White Brazilian, Florianópolis, German Brazilian, Joinville