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Concept: Geographical indication


Considering that the determination of authenticity and of the geographical origin of food is a very challenging issue, in this study we studied by means of histological and histochemical analyses the famous Sicilian lemon known as ‘Interdonato Lemon of Messina PGI’. Since the protected geographical indication Interdonato lemon of Messina possesses high organoleptic properties, the composition of the hexane extract of lemon peel was determined by HRGC and HRGC-MS analyses and compared with that of lemon of different cultivars. The results obtained are informative of the oil’s quality and explain the variation of the lemon essential oil composition. Given the fundamental economic implications of any fraud, the aim of this study was to determine a fingerprint able to evaluate the authentication of the geographic origin in such way to prevent frauds in national and international markets.

Concepts: Petroleum, Citrus, Italy, Essential oil, Sicily, Lemon, Geographical indication, Sicilian language


Nowadays consumers are increasing their attention to the quality and origin of products they consume. EU quality schemes are associated with a label, which was introduced to allow consumers to perform an informed choice and to protect producers from unfair practices. This paper provides an overview of the last 25 years of EU quality schemes (Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG)) on agricultural products and foodstuffs across the 28 EU Member States. According to the results, it was possible to conclude that Southern European countries have the highest number of registered products. The most used EU quality scheme is PGI, followed by PDO. Concerning the analysis of the evolution in the last 25 years, the number of registered products among EU Member States has significantly increased. The fruit, vegetables and cereals (fresh or processed) category is the one that accounts with the highest percentage (26.8%) of registered products, followed by cheeses and meat products (cooked, salted, smoked) categories, with 17.2% and 13.5%, respectively. Further investigations should address consumers' preferences, knowledge and attitudes, especially in the Northern European countries that have a lower number of registered products. Moreover, the investigation and registration of products should be encouraged among all EU Member States to allow the maintenance of important elements of the history, culture and heritage of the local areas, regions and countries.

Concepts: European Union, United Kingdom, Member State of the European Union, Slovakia, Malta, Poland, Geographical indication, Protected Geographical Status


Authentic meat products are gaining attention through their unique quality characteristics linked to their origin. Various factors are known to influence the quality of fresh meat. This review describes the different Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) lamb types and discusses the factors which influences its unique sensory and chemical characteristics. Flavour, aroma, texture and colour play an integral part in the sensorial quality of denomination of origin fresh meat products. For authentic fresh sheep meat the sensory (as well as chemical) quality is largely influenced by diet followed by breed, age and gender. However, diet forms the link with the geographical area of origin, which together with the traditional production system and sheep breeds used, lends the product its authentic nature. This review shows how diet linked to origin can affect the quality of the meat and furthermore how other factors such as breed can also have an effect. Research relating to the authentic lamb types were evaluated and the shortcomings highlighted in order to assist with the development of PDO and PGI specifications in the future.

Concepts: European Union, Meat, Wales, Domestic sheep, Roasting, Lamb and mutton, Geographical indication, Protected Geographical Status


Potatoes from Galicia (NW Spain) are subjected to a Protected Geographic Indication (PGI) according to European legislation. Ten trace elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn) have been determined by atomic spectrometry in two sets of potato samples: Geo-Origin.set and Variety.set. The first data set is of composed samples of the only variety authorized by PGI (Kennebec) with two geographical origins: Galician and non-Galician. The second set corresponds to samples from different varieties but with the only Galician geographical origin. Chemometric pattern recognition techniques have been applied to the study of potato geographical and varietal origins in relation to their capability for translocating metals from soil-to-tuber. Also, authentication models for classifying potato samples with Galician PGI based on metal fingerprints have been developed. The results obtained showed that samples of the same variety Kennebec have different metal fingerprint when they have been produced in different geographic locations. But also diverse potato varieties cultivated on equal geographic Galician origin presented different metal profile as well. Therefore, it can be concluded that classification studies on the differentiation of geographical origin of foods should be addressed taking into account information of production area together with varietal data jointly. Otherwise, classification obtained on the basis of the geographical origin could be due to the different variety or vice-versa. Finally, two models were constructed for Kennebec Galician samples against Kennebec from other origins as well as against other varieties cultivated in Galicia (Liseta and Baraka). Both models achieved adequate classification rates (93-100%), good sensitivities and total specificities (100%), allowing the fraud detection in PGI label.

Concepts: Metal, Trigraph, Potassium, Spain, Potato, Taxonomic rank, Galicia, Geographical indication


Analytical traceability of PGI and PDO foods (Protected Geographical Indication and Protected Denomination Origin respectively) is one of the most challenging tasks of current applied research.

Concepts: Research, Basic research, Applied research, Geographical indication, Endive, Chicory, Cichorium, Protected Geographical Status


Honey attributes such as geographical origin or specified botanical sources often command a premium price due to their organoleptic or pharmacoactive properties. “Miel de Granada” is a highly quality product with protected designation of origin (PDO) which includes six monofloral honeys and two multifloral honeys. Our objective was the characterization of “Miel de Granada” according to their metal content. Metal content was specific enough and allowed discrimination from honeys of different botanical and geographical origins and confirmed the authenticity of PDO labelling as Granada product with the determination of only five elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg and Zn). Chemometric techniques as cluster analysis and ANOVA were used to classify honeys according to their botanical and geographical origin in the metal data. Metal content marks the differences in honey samples and can be used as a tool to assess the quality of honeys. ANOVA showed significant differences among rosemary honeys from different geographical areas despite the botanical factor weight. Our research contributes to the groundwork studies to determine the geographical origin of Spanish honeys.

Concepts: Cluster analysis, Al-Andalus, According to Jim, Honey, Sucrose, Origin, Chemometrics, Geographical indication