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Concept: Genu valgum


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of open wedge HTO below the tubercle for genu varum in relatively young patients.

Concepts: Genu valgum, Genu varum, Osteotomy


Lateral opening wedge high tibial osteotomy is a rarely employed surgical technique used for the treatment of lateral knee pain and degeneration in the setting of genu valgum. There exists little evidence of the suitability of this procedure for patients requiring osteotomies with a small correction.

Concepts: Varus deformity, Genu valgum, Osteotomy


BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health problem in Western societies. It may lead to difficulties in daily life that have an impact on quality of life and create psychological disorders. After failure of diet and exercise, patients can undergo bariatric surgery, but some obese patients are not motivated to undergo a bariatric procedure. For such patients, plastic surgeons can correct some excess fat to improve their quality of life. This report describes an original technique for correcting the excess fat at the medial part of the knees to regain a normal walking perimeter. METHODS: A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the authors' center for correction of a functional walking disorder. Indeed, her clinical examination found a static disorder, with a valgus knee morphotype related to a major excess of skin and fat in the medial part of the knees. She underwent a knee dermolipectomy to obtain a solely functional result. RESULTS: No complications were observed in the woman’s postoperative course. At this writing, the result is stable 18 months after the surgical procedure, with a minimal visible scar hidden in the internal face of the knees. The woman has experienced a loss of her genu valgum and regained a walking distance longer than 1 km. She also has lost 10 kg of weight. CONCLUSIONS: Knee dermolipectomy is a simple procedure with good results and few complications that improves the quality of life for obese patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

Concepts: Better, Medicine, Obesity, Evidence-based medicine, Surgery, Weight loss, Bariatric surgery, Genu valgum


We describe a case of lamellar ichthyosis with bilateral genu valgum. The association of genu valgum with congenital ichthyosis is rare. Our patient, a 22-year-old girl, had lamellar ichthyosis and was born with a collodion membrane. She developed progressive valgus deformity of the knees of 5 years duration associated with difficulty in walking. On evaluation, she had generalised scaly skin lesions along with bilateral genu valgum and biochemical evidence of vitamin D deficiency. Skin serves as an important site for vitamin D synthesis and thus skeletal deformities secondary to vitamin D deficiency may occur in cases of congenital ichthyosis, causing a diagnostic dilemma due to the unusual association. This case serves as a reminder that clinicians need to be aware of such an association in order to prevent, appropriately diagnose and adequately treat the rare case of congenital ichthyosis with rickets and osteomalacia.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Varus deformity, Rickets, Skeletal disorders, Genu valgum, Valgus deformity, Genu varum, Osteomalacia


49, XXXXY is a rare aneuploidy and variant of Klinefelter syndrome, occurring in 1 per 80,000-100,000 live births. We present a cohort of 40 affected males, focusing on musculoskeletal problems. Subjects were participants in an annual 49er family support group meeting. Children were examined in a multidisciplinary clinic by a pediatric neurologist and geneticist, a pediatric orthopedist, a neurodevelopmentalist, and two physical therapists. The patient data were collected from this clinic from 2004 to 2012. All patients were required to have karyotypes that confirmed the presence of XXXXY. There was a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, particularly hypotonia (34 patients [85%]), radioulnar synostosis (30 [75%]), pes planus (26 [65%]), asymmetric hip rotation (27 [67.5%]), and clinodactyly (24 [60%]). Other, less common lower-extremity disorders, included, 5 patients (12.5%) with unilateral club foot, 5 boys (12.5%) with pes cavus, 10 patients (25%) genu valgum and 2 children with genu varus (5%). To our knowledge, this is the first large cohort of boys with 49, XXXXY that focuses on musculoskeletal disorders. There was an increased incidence of hypotonia, clubfoot, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, radioulnar synostosis, and pes planus compared to the normative population. Boys with 49, XXXXY would benefit from multidisciplinary evaluations, particularly from pediatric orthopedists, physical therapists, neurologists, and geneticists for appropriate medical care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Varus deformity, Neurology, Avascular necrosis, Klinefelter's syndrome, Aneuploidy, Genu valgum, Genu varum, Congenital disorders of musculoskeletal system



Femoral medial closing wedge osteotomy for the correction of valgus malalignment to unload the cartilage in the lateral compartment and/or correction of symptomatic torsional malalignment.

Concepts: Varus deformity, Genu valgum, Valgus deformity, Genu varum, Osteotomy


Patients with multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) frequently present with a genu valgum deformity. Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis, such as hemiepiphyseal stapling, is a relatively safe surgical method to correct angular deformities in skeletally immature patients, but its outcomes for genu valgum deformity in MHE patients have not been extensively reported. We investigated the outcomes of hemiepiphyseal stapling in MHE patients (MHE group) and compared those with the outcomes in patients with idiopathic deformities (idiopathic group) after adjusting for potential bias.

Concepts: Varus deformity, Sociology, Skeletal disorders, Genu valgum, Genu varum, Deformity, Hereditary multiple exostoses, Exostosis


Genu valgum, a risk factor for recurrent patellofemoral instability, can be addressed with a varus producing distal femoral osteotomy (DFO). The purpose of this study is to report 3-year clinical and radiographic outcomes on a series of skeletally mature adolescents with traumatic patellofemoral instability and genu valgum who underwent a varus producing DFO.

Concepts: Varus deformity, Genu valgum, Valgus deformity, Genu varum, Osteotomy


Severe cases of genu varum represent a major challenge in obtaining normal configuration of the proximal tibia and overall limb alignment.

Concepts: Syndromes, Genu valgum, Genu varum, Osteotomy, Human leg