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Concept: Generation X

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Assigning attributes to a birth cohort is one way we identify society-wide, shared life experiences within a group collectively called a “generation.” Such assigned attributes influence society’s adoption of generation-based expectations held by and about people from a particular birth cohort. Census data and generational attributes inform perspectives on millennial generation birth cohort experiences and engagement as students. The eldest living generation in U.S. society has given way to 3 subsequent generations, the youngest of which is called the millennial generation. What generational attributes influence the effectiveness of teaching and learning between millennial learners and faculty members from other generations? Understanding the role of life cycle effects, period effects and cohort effects can offer medical and health professions educators' insights into different strategies for learner engagement. Discussion includes specific strategies and teaching tactics faculty members can use to engage millennials across a continuum of learning to bridge the “expectation gap.”

Concepts: Education, Knowledge, Generation Y, Generation, Strauss and Howe, Keith Jarrett, Generation X, Generation Z

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Many feel that the generational differences encountered with Millennial trainees are novel; the reality is that prior generations have always bemoaned generational differences. This is not a new problem; some of the same things may even have been said about us during our own training! There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about the Millennial generation (also known as Generation Y). In this article we review some of the differences frequently encountered as we educate and work alongside our Millennial colleagues, dispelling some of the myths and misconceptions. With increased understanding of this talented group of individuals, we hope to be more effective teachers and have more successful professional relationships.

Concepts: Education, School, Teacher, Generation Y, Generation, Strauss and Howe, Generation X, Generation Z

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QuantiFERON-TB Gold IT analysis interferon-gamma release from CD4(+) T-cells after stimulation with specific tuberculosis (TB) antigens. Its sensitivity is approximately 80% for active TB. A new test generation (QFTGplus) also analysis the response of CD8(+) T-cells. We investigated both test generations in a direct head-to-head comparison in a German pulmonary hospital. Sensitivity rates for active TB were identical, no matter whether diagnosis was bacteriologically confirmed or not.

Concepts: Tuberculosis, Silent Generation, Strauss and Howe, Generation X

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Demographics are changing on a global scale. In the United States, an aging population continues to work, either by preference or because of insufficient resources to retire. Of even greater importance, a younger generation, referred to as the Millennial Generation, will soon predominate in the workforce and even now accounts for nearly 100% of resident physicians. By the year 2020, there will be 5 generations in the workplace.

Concepts: Demography, United States, Physician, Demographics, Medical school, Generation Y, Strauss and Howe, Generation X

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THE HEALTHCARE system is made up of a four-generational workforce, whose members tend to have different attitudes towards work. These are known as the: ■ Silent generation: born before 1946 and characterised as hard workers. ■ Post-war baby boomers: born between 1946 and 1964, and characterised as loyal. ■ Generation X: born between 1965 and 1980, who want a good work-life balance. ■ Generation Y or millennials: born between 1980 and 1995, and characterised as innovators.

Concepts: Demographics, Generation Y, Cultural generations, Strauss and Howe, Generation X, September 25, November 21, October 15

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The success of prosecutions of perpetrators of sexual abuse often depends substantially upon the perceived credibility of the victim witness. However, perceptions of credibility may vary by generation of the observer, and the constitution of juries may therefore lead to bias. In this study we examined whether perceptions of credibility of female victims of sexual abuse varied across generation Y, generation X, “baby boomers”, and “builders”. One hundred and twenty-eight jury-eligible members of the community from each generation (N=512) responded to ten questions assessing the perceived believability, competence, trustworthiness, demeanour and sexual naiveté of females providing testimony related to alleged sexual abuse. Although consistent between-generation differences were not found for all questions, or all four groups of generational cohorts, in instances where significant differences were found, it was consistently the older generation groups (builders and baby boomers) that attributed less credibility to the victim than the younger generation groups (generation Y and generation X). The implications of these findings are discussed.

Concepts: Demographics, Victim, The Victim, Generation Y, Generation, Cultural generations, Strauss and Howe, Generation X

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Hiring a new partner into an orthopaedic department or group can be a daunting task. A recent American Orthopedic Association symposium sought to address three major aspects of hiring that affect orthopaedic leaders: (1) when to hire-the chairperson’s role; (2) generational issues that affect hiring; and (3) the development of an initial compensation package.How does the chairperson recruit new physicians? Hiring a new partner into the academic setting requires a good deal of foresight. There must be an established game plan. Advertising and interviews need to be orchestrated. Chairpersons can find information about candidates from many unique sources. Fit within the department and community is important and must be cultivated. Spouses and families need special attention. Research candidates have individual needs. Perhaps the most important aspect of recruitment is the development of a realistic business plan. This paper provides an overview of factors to consider in managing a new hire.Generational issues are intriguing. Should they affect our hiring practices? It seems clear to established physicians that the new generation of graduates is different from their predecessors. Is this really true? Most everyone is familiar with the terms “Silent Generation,” “Baby Boomers,” “Generation X,” and “Generation Y.” Is there anything to be gained by categorizing an applicant? Is it important to hire a replica of one’s self? This paper provides a thoughtful overview of generational issues as they apply to hiring new partners.Most department chairpersons are not trained as negotiators. Some preparation and experience are helpful in guiding the process of making an initial offer to a candidate. It is not all about pay. The package includes the guarantee period, expectations for the new hire, mentorship, and resources. How much should new orthopaedic academic hires be paid? Recent benchmark data from the Academic Orthopaedic Consortium suggest a mean income of $282,667 for physicians who have just finished a fellowship. New hires are concerned about call frequency and available time free from work. How much work should be expected from an academic surgeon? Recent survey data from the American Orthopaedic Consortium suggest a mean of 9200 relative value units per year. This article offers some guidelines for the chairperson who needs to formulate an initial offer for a new hire.There is a lot involved in hiring a new partner, as times are changing. This paper offers considerable food for thought about hiring.

Concepts: Management, Demographics, Generation Y, Generation, Cultural generations, Strauss and Howe, Chairman, Generation X

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The neutral rate of allelic substitution is analyzed for a class-structured population subject to a stationary stochastic demographic process. The substitution rate is shown to be generally equal to the effective mutation rate, and under overlapping generations it can be expressed as the effective mutation rate in newborns when measured in units of average generation time. With uniform mutation across classes the substitution rate reduces to the mutation rate.

Concepts: Demography, Population, Demographics, Demographic economics, Population growth, Generation, Generation X

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Besides its formal and legal relevance, postgraduate medical education plays an important role in recruiting and retaining employees. Success of graduate education is affected by a changing environment: the former employer market is turning into an employee market. Demographic changes are taking place and a new generation of employees ‘Generation Y’ is entering the job market. In addition, working conditions are changing: part-time work is increasing and the learning behavior of young professionals demands more flexibility and the use of digital media. These changes and conditions will shape graduate medical education. On the one hand, medical interventions are becoming increasingly complex, on the other hand patients are getting older and sicker. Therefore, simulation-based learning will play an important role in medical training.

Concepts: Psychology, Demographics, Employment, Higher education, Play, Graduate school, Postgraduate education, Generation X

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Very few validation studies have been performed between different generations of the commonly used Actigraph accelerometers. We compared daily physical activity data generated from the old generation Actigraph model 7164 with the new generation Actigraph GT1M accelerometer in 15 young females for eight consecutive days. We also investigated if different wear time thresholds had any impact on the findings. Minutes per day of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), vigorous physical activity (VPA) and very vigorous physical activity (VVPA) were calculated. Moreover, minutes of sedentary pursuits per day were calculated.

Concepts: Model, Measuring instruments, Generation, Generation X