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Concept: Gastrointestinal bleeding


Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common, high risk emergency disorders in the western world. Almost nothing has been reported on longer term prognosis following upper GI bleeding. The aim of this study was to establish mortality up to three years following hospital admission with upper GI bleeding and its relationship with aetiology, co-morbidities and socio-demographic factors.

Concepts: Central Europe, Western Europe, Surgery, Western culture, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Western world, Gastroenterology, Upper gastrointestinal bleeding


To investigate the clinical impact of capsule endoscopy (CE) after an obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) episode, focusing on diagnostic work-up, follow-up and predictive factors of rebleeding.

Concepts: Colonoscopy, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Endoscopy, Gastroenterology


Aspirin has been shown to lower the incidence and the mortality of vascular disease and cancer but its wider adoption appears to be seriously impeded by concerns about gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Unlike heart attacks, stroke and cancer, GI bleeding is an acute event, usually followed by complete recovery. We propose therefore that a more appropriate evaluation of the risk-benefit balance would be based on fatal adverse events, rather than on the incidence of bleeding. We therefore present a literature search and meta-analysis to ascertain fatal events attributable to low-dose aspirin.

Concepts: Systematic review, Aspirin, Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Medical statistics, Stroke, Randomized controlled trial, Epidemiology


Patients on antithrombotic therapy (ATT) have the highest risk of ongoing bleeding and mortality. Hemospray (Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA) is a novel hemostatic agent for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Initial reports on its use appear promising in terms of initial hemostasis and rebleeding rates. It is unknown whether this also pertains to patients on ATT. The aim of the current study therefore was to evaluate the efficacy of Hemospray in the treatment of UGIB in patients taking ATTs. A total of 16 unselected consecutive patients with UGIB who were treated with Hemospray were analyzed (eight taking ATT for various indications and eight not on ATT). Initial hemostasis was achieved after Hemospray application in 5 /8 patients on ATT (63 %) and in all eight patients not on therapy (P = 0.20). Rebleeding rates were similar in both groups. These preliminary data on the use of Hemospray in the management of UGIB are promising in both patients with and without ATT; however, caution should be exercised for its use in patients on ATT with spurting arterial bleeding.

Concepts: North Carolina, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Antihemorrhagic, Bleeding, Medical emergencies, Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, Hemostasis, Gastroenterology


Therapeutic angioembolization is a relatively new “rescue treatment” modality for gastrointestinal hemorrhage (GIH) for unstable patients who fail primary treatment approaches; however, the effectiveness of this treatment and the incidence of ischemic necrosis following embolization for acute GIH are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of “rescue” transcatheter superselective angioembolization (SSAE) for the treatment of hemodynamically unstable patients with GIH.

Concepts: Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Ischemia


To determine the accuracy of the Faecal Occult Blood-Transferrin test (FOB-T; Certest Biotec, San Mateo de Gállego, Spain) for detection of blood in nasogastric aspirate, and its emergency diagnostic value for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB).

Concepts: Lower gastrointestinal bleeding, Medical emergencies, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Blood, Diagnosis, Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, Gastroenterology


With small diameter endoscopes, transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (t-EGD) is routinely performed. The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the role of t-EGD for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB).

Concepts: Medical emergencies, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, Observational study, Gastroenterology, Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy


To examine the effect of supplementation with probiotics on respiratory and gastrointestinal illness in healthy active men and women.

Concepts: Gastrointestinal bleeding, Digestive system, Probiotic



Background The hemoglobin threshold for transfusion of red cells in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding is controversial. We compared the efficacy and safety of a restrictive transfusion strategy with those of a liberal transfusion strategy. Methods We enrolled 921 patients with severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and randomly assigned 461 of them to a restrictive strategy (transfusion when the hemoglobin level fell below 7 g per deciliter) and 460 to a liberal strategy (transfusion when the hemoglobin fell below 9 g per deciliter). Randomization was stratified according to the presence or absence of liver cirrhosis. Results A total of 225 patients assigned to the restrictive strategy (51%), as compared with 65 assigned to the liberal strategy (15%), did not receive transfusions (P<0.001). The probability of survival at 6 weeks was higher in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group (95% vs. 91%; hazard ratio for death with restrictive strategy, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 0.92; P=0.02). Further bleeding occurred in 10% of the patients in the restrictive-strategy group as compared with 16% of the patients in the liberal-strategy group (P=0.01), and adverse events occurred in 40% as compared with 48% (P=0.02). The probability of survival was slightly higher with the restrictive strategy than with the liberal strategy in the subgroup of patients who had bleeding associated with a peptic ulcer (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.26 to 1.25) and was significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with cirrhosis and Child-Pugh class A or B disease (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.85), but not in those with cirrhosis and Child-Pugh class C disease (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.45 to 2.37). Within the first 5 days, the portal-pressure gradient increased significantly in patients assigned to the liberal strategy (P=0.03) but not in those assigned to the restrictive strategy. Conclusions As compared with a liberal transfusion strategy, a restrictive strategy significantly improved outcomes in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (Funded by Fundació Investigació Sant Pau; number, NCT00414713 .).

Concepts: Hepatitis C, Red blood cell, Hemoglobin, Bilirubin, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Peptic ulcer, Liver, Gastroenterology