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Concept: Gastroesophageal reflux disease

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BACKGROUND: Data about prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux diseases (GERD) from Asian populations are still scarce. To provide additional data on prevalence of GERD and investigate its potential risk factors, we performed this cross-sectional study in the Taizhou Retiree Cohort. METHODS: After physical examination, the participants were asked whether they suffered with heartburn or acid regurgitation in the last 12 months by trained interviewers, and if yes, the severity and frequency of the symptoms were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of obesity and other risk factors with GERD were derived from logistic regression models. RESULTS: 8831 retirees completed the questionnaire and physical examination. In total 150 (1.7%) reported the symptoms occurring at least once per week within the last 12 months before the interview. Compared with subjects without GERD, having a history of diabetes mellitus (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.5), hypertension (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.1), gastritis (OR 8.2, 95% CI 5.8-11.5), peptic ulcer (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.8-6.1) and high triglyceride level (>=1.81mmol/L) (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4) were associated with a significantly increased risk of GERD. However, there was no significant association between body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio or waist alone, smoking, consumption of alcohol & tea, and the occurrence of reflux symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with Western populations, the prevalence of GERD in this Chinese retiree cohort is low. A history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gastritis, peptic ulcer or hypertriglyceridaemia increases GERD risk in this population.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Body mass index, Metabolic syndrome, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Peptic ulcer, Waist-hip ratio

167

Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is common in infants. When the condition causes pathological symptoms and/or complications it is considered gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). It appears to be increasingly diagnosed and causes great distress in the first year of infancy. In New South Wales (NSW), residential parenting services support families with early parenting difficulties. These services report a large number of babies admitted with a label of GOR/GORD. The aim of this study was to explore the maternal and infant characteristics, obstetric interventions, and reasons for clinical reporting of GOR/GORD in NSW in the first 12 months following birth (2000-2011).

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Infant, Breastfeeding, Maternal bond, Infant mortality, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, New South Wales

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The diagnosis of functional heartburn is important for management, however it stands on fragile pH monitoring variables, ie, acid exposure time varies from day to day and symptoms are often few or absent. Aim of this study was to investigate consistency of the diagnosis of functional heartburn in subsequent days using prolonged wireless pH monitoring and its impact on patients' outcome.

Concepts: Acid, Asthma, Proton, Gastroenterology, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Esophageal pH Monitoring, Heartburn, Hydrogen ion

150

Patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) are at an increased risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC); thus they may undergo regular endoscopic surveillance. If epithelial changes cannot be unequivocally classified as negative or positive for dysplasia, a diagnosis of indefinite for dysplasia (IND) is recommended. Several biomarkers have been proposed as markers or predictors of neoplasia in the general BE population; however, their significance is not clear in patients with BE-IND. We therefore performed a retrospective study to determine whether expression of these biomarkers was associated with the development of neoplasia in BE-IND patients.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Retrospective, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus, Metaplasia

149

The motility change after per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in achalasia is currently focused on lower esophageal sphincter (LES). This study aims to investigate the correlation of motility response between distal and proximal esophagus after POEM.

Concepts: Digestive system, Stomach, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Esophagus, Cardia, Achalasia, Esophageal cancer, Esophageal arteries

142

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with obesity and hiatal hernia, and often precedes the development of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). Epidemiological studies show that the global prevalence of GERD is increasing. GERD is a multifactorial disease with a complex genetic architecture. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided initial insights into the genetic background of GERD. The present review summarizes current knowledge of the genetics of GERD and a possible genetic overlap between GERD and BE and EA. The review discusses genes and cellular pathways that have been implicated through GWAS, and provides an outlook on how future molecular research will enhance understanding of GERD pathophysiology.

Concepts: Genetics, Epidemiology, Asthma, Obesity, Gastroenterology, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus

49

Nanoparticle-based therapeutics are being used to treat patients with solid tumors. Whereas nanoparticles have been shown to preferentially accumulate in solid tumors of animal models, there is little evidence to prove that intact nanoparticles localize to solid tumors of humans when systemically administered. Here, tumor and adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue biopsies are obtained through endoscopic capture from patients with gastric, gastroesophageal, or esophageal cancer who are administered the nanoparticle CRLX101. Both the pre- and postdosing tissue samples adjacent to tumors show no definitive evidence of either the nanoparticle or its drug payload (camptothecin, CPT) contained within the nanoparticle. Similar results are obtained from the predosing tumor samples. However, in nine of nine patients that were evaluated, CPT is detected in the tumor tissue collected 24-48 h after CRLX101 administration. For five of these patients, evidence of the intact deposition of CRLX101 nanoparticles in the tumor tissue is obtained. Indications of CPT pharmacodynamics from tumor biomarkers such as carbonic anhydrase IX and topoisomerase I by immunohistochemistry show clear evidence of biological activity from the delivered CPT in the posttreatment tumors.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Anatomical pathology, Benign tumor, Tumor, Neoplasm, Nanomaterials, Gastroesophageal reflux disease

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IMPORTANCE Infantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders that lead to referral to a pediatrician during the first 6 months of life and are often responsible for hospitalization, feeding changes, use of drugs, parental anxiety, and loss of parental working days with relevant social consequences. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether oral supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life can reduce the onset of colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation in term newborns and thereby reduce the socioeconomic impact of these conditions. DESIGN A prospective, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was performed on term newborns (age <1 week) born at 9 different neonatal units in Italy between September 1, 2010, and October 30, 2012. SETTING Parents were asked to record in a structured diary the number of episodes of regurgitation, duration of inconsolable crying (minutes per day), number of evacuations per day, number of visits to pediatricians, feeding changes, hospitalizations, visits to a pediatric emergency department for a perceived health emergency, pharmacologic interventions, and loss of parental working days. PARTICIPANTS In total, 589 infants were randomly allocated to receive L reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo daily for 90 days. INTERVENTIONS Prophylactic use of probiotic. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Reduction of daily crying time, regurgitation, and constipation during the first 3 months of life. Cost-benefit analysis of the probiotic supplementation. RESULTS At 3 months of age, the mean duration of crying time (38 vs 71 minutes; P < .01), the mean number of regurgitations per day (2.9 vs 4.6; P < .01), and the mean number of evacuations per day (4.2 vs 3.6; P < .01) for the L reuteri DSM 17938 and placebo groups, respectively, were significantly different. The use of L reuteri DSM 17938 resulted in an estimated mean savings per patient of €88 (US $118.71) for the family and an additional €104 (US $140.30) for the community. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Prophylactic use of L reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life reduced the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders and reduced private and public costs for the management of this condition. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01235884.

Concepts: Infant, Clinical trial, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Pediatrics, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Baby colic

34

OBJECTIVES To analyze the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to compare the results of LSG vs gastric bypass (GB) among patients with known GERD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS We performed a retrospective review of the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2010, including inpatient and all outpatient follow-up data. We compared patients undergoing LSG with a concurrent cohort undergoing GB. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Rates of improvement or worsening of GERD symptoms, development of new-onset GERD, and weight loss and complications. RESULTS A total of 4832 patients underwent LSG and 33 867 underwent GB, with preexisting GERD present in 44.5% of the LSG cohort and 50.4% of the GB cohort. Most LSG patients (84.1%) continued to have GERD symptoms postoperatively, with only 15.9% demonstrating GERD resolution. Of LSG patients who did not demonstrate preoperative GERD, 8.6% developed GERD postoperatively. In comparison, GB resolved GERD in most patients (62.8%) within 6 months postoperatively (P < .001). Among the LSG cohort, the presence of preoperative GERD was associated with increased postoperative complications (15.1% vs 10.6%), gastrointestinal adverse events (6.9% vs 3.6%), and increased need for revisional surgery (0.6% vs 0.3%) (all P < .05). The presence of GERD had no effect on weight loss for the GB cohort but was associated with decreased weight loss in the LSG group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy did not reliably relieve or improve GERD symptoms and induced GERD in some previously asymptomatic patients. Preoperative GERD was associated with worse outcomes and decreased weight loss with LSG and may represent a relative contraindication.

Concepts: Obesity, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Bariatric surgery, Bariatrics

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To update the findings of the 2005 systematic review of population-based studies assessing the epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Concepts: Gastroesophageal reflux disease