Concept: Gas chromatography
This paper describes the design of a new instrumental technique, Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry (GC-R), that adapts the reconstitution technique used in flavor chemistry studies by extracting volatiles from a sample by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), separating the extract on a capillary GC column, and recombining individual compounds selectively as they elute off of the column into a mixture for sensory analysis (Figure 1). Using the chromatogram of a mixture as a map, the GC-R instrument allows the operator to “cut apart” and recombine the components of the mixture at will, selecting compounds, peaks, or sections based on retention time to include or exclude in a reconstitution for sensory analysis. Selective recombination is accomplished with the installation of a Deans Switch directly in-line with the column, which directs compounds either to waste or to a cryotrap at the operator’s discretion. This enables the creation of, for example, aroma reconstitutions incorporating all of the volatiles in a sample, including instrumentally undetectable compounds as well those present at concentrations below sensory thresholds, thus correcting for the “reconstitution discrepancy” sometimes noted in flavor chemistry studies. Using only flowering lavender (Lavandula angustifola ‘Hidcote Blue’) as a source for volatiles, we used the instrument to build mixtures of subsets of lavender volatiles in-instrument and characterized their aroma qualities with a sensory panel. We showed evidence of additive, masking, and synergistic effects in these mixtures and of “lavender' aroma character as an emergent property of specific mixtures. This was accomplished without the need for chemical standards, reductive aroma models, or calculation of Odor Activity Values, and is broadly applicable to any aroma or flavor.
Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus is an aquatic macrophyte; it is known as a wild edible plant in Japan for a long time. In this study, the essential oils from the fresh and dried aerial parts of R. nipponicus var. submersus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thus, 98 compounds (accounting for 93.86%) of the oil were identified. The major compounds in fresh plant oil were phytol (41.94%), heptadecane (5.92%), and geranyl propionate (5.76%), while those of. Dried plant oil were β-ionone (23.54%), 2-hexenal (8.75%), and dihydrobovolide (4.81%). The fresh and dried oils had the green-floral and citrus-floral odor, respectively. The GC-O and AEDA results show that phenylacetaldehyde (green, floral odor, FD-factor = 8) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 8) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the fresh oils. β-Cyclocitral (citrus odor, FD-factor = 64) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 64) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the dried oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the flavor of R. nipponicus var. submersus.
The manuscript pages of the final draft of Master i Margarita, the masterpiece by Mikhail Bulgakov, written in the last four years of his life (1936-1940), have been treated with a mixture of chromatographic beads, namely a strong cation exchanger and a C8 resin. Potential substances captured by the beads, after harvesting them, were eluted with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol, dichloromethane and ammonium hydroxide and the eluate subjected to GS-MS analysis in order to detect the presence, if any, of drugs, due to the fact that the writer suffered intense pains caused by an inherited nephrotic syndrome. Indeed all the pages under investigation (a total of ten, taken at random among 127 foils) contained traces of morphine, from as little as 5 up to 100ng/cm(2). In addition to the intact drug, we could detect one of its metabolites, namely 6-O-acetyl morphine. The significance of these findings in terms of a possible improvement of the novel and in terms of drug use (or abuse) in the modern world is discussed and evaluated.
Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of two macrolactin antibiotics from marine bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for the first time using stepwise elution with a pair of two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:4:1:4, v/v) and (3:4:3:4, v/v). The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300mg of crude sample yielding macrolactin B (22.7mg) and macrolactin A (40.4mg) in a one-step separation, with purities over 95% as determined by HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified by MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Our results demonstrated that HSCCC was an efficient technique to separate marine antibiotics, which provide an approach to solve the problem of their sample availability for drug development.
For the first time, a carboxyl group derivatization assay has been developed and validated for the determination of the cholesterol-lowering drug rosuvastatin in human serum at picogram level by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The assay procedure involved a simple one-step liquid-liquid extraction of rosuvastatin with lovastatin as internal standard from serum with an ethyl acetate-methyl tertiary buthyl ether (1:1) mixture. After pre-column derivatization with 9-anthryldiazomethane at room temperature for one hour, the reaction mixture was injected onto a Phenomenex, Synergi C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 4 µ i.d.). The analytes were separated with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-water in gradient elution mode and detected at λ(em) = 410 nm, exciting at 366 nm. Calibration curves were constructed in concentration range of 0.01-20.0 ng/mL and limit of detection and limit of quantification values were found to be 0.68 and 2.30 pg/mL, respectively. To test suitability of the developed methods for clinic use, the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin were investigated after oral administration of a 20 mg rosuvastatin film tablet to a healthy volunteer and maximum plasma concentration, time to reach that concentration and elimination half life were found to be 17.5 ng/mL, 3.5 h and 18.09 h, respectively.
The separation of deuterated and non-deuterated compounds in gas liquid partitioning chromatography (GLC) on silicone type stationary phase usually results in the inverse isotope effect. With ionic liquids (ILs) as stationary phase, however, this may show a totally different nature. The inverse isotope effect, in which heavier (deuterated) isotopic compounds (isotopologues) elute earlier, is to be expected when van der Waals (London) dispersion forces play a dominant role in the solute-stationary phase interaction. Such (apolar) interactions seem to play only a minor role when ILs are the stationary phases, leading to only a marginal inverse isotope effect, e.g. for the separation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and its [(2)H(5)]-isotopologue on 1,12-di(tripropylphosphonium) dodecane bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl) amide (commercialized as SLB-IL59, Supelco). Indeed, with the most polar stationary phase available (commercialized as SLB-IL111; Supelco), this separation showed a normal isotope effect. Further examples are presented and the nature of the isotope effect observed is discussed.
We report an ion exchange chromatographic purification method powerful for preparation of virus particles with ultrapure quality. The technology is based on large pore size monolithic anion exchangers, quaternary amine (QA) and diethyl aminoethyl (DEAE). These were applied to membrane-containing icosahedral bacteriophage PRD1, which bound specifically to both matrices. Virus particles eluted from the columns retained their infectivity, and were homogenous with high specific infectivity. The yields of infectious particles were up to 80%. Purified particles were recovered at high concentrations, approximately 5mg/ml, sufficient for virological, biochemical and structural analyses. We also tested the applicability of the monolithic anion exchange purification on a filamentous bacteriophage phi05_2302. Monolithic ion exchange chromatography is easily scalable and can be combined with other preparative virus purification methods.
The confirmation by GC/C/IRMS of the exogenous origin of pseudo-endogenous steroids from human urine samples requires extracts of adequate purity. A strategy based on HPLC sample purification prior to the GC/C/IRMS analysis of human urinary endogenous androgens (i.e. testosterone, androsterone and/or androstenediols), is presented. A method without any additional derivatization step is proposed, allowing to simplify the urine pretreatment procedure, leading to extracts free of interferences permitting precise and accurate IRMS analysis, without the need of correcting the measured delta values for the contribution of the derivatizing agent. The HPLC extracts were adequately combined to both reduce the number of GC/C/IRMS runs and to have appropriate endogenous reference compounds (ERC; i.e. pregnanediol, 11-keto-etiocholanolone) on each GC-IRMS run. The purity of the extracts was assessed by their parallel analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with GC conditions identical to those of the GC/C/IRMS assay. The method has been validated according to ISO17025 requirements (within assay precision below 0.3‰(13)C delta units and between assay precision below 0.6‰(13)C delta units for most of the compounds investigated) fulfilling the World Anti-Doping Agency requirements.
A highly sensitive, rapid assay method has been developed and validated for the estimation of bicalutamide in mouse plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in the negative-ion mode. The assay procedure involves extraction of bicalutamide and tolbutamide (internal standard, IS) from mouse plasma with a simple protein precipitation method. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an isocratic mobile phase (0.2% formic acid:acetonitrile, 35:65, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min on an Atlantis dC(18) column (maintained at 40 ± 1°C) with a total run time of 3.0 min. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were m/z 428.9 → 254.7 for bicalutamide and m/z 269.0 → 169.6 for IS. Method validation was performed as per FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The lower limit of quantitation achieved was 1.04 ng/mL and the linearity range extended from 1.04 to 1877 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the ranges of 0.49-4.68 and 2.62-4.15, respectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The treatment of mature landfill leachate by EF-Fere (also called Fered-Fenton) method was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using Ti/RuO(2)-IrO(2)-SnO(2)-TiO(2) mesh anodes and Ti mesh cathodes. The effects of important parameters, including initial pH, inter-electrode gap, H(2)O(2) to Fe(2+) molar ratio, H(2)O(2) dosage and hydraulic retention time, on COD removal were investigated. The results showed that the complete mixing condition was fulfilled in the electrochemical reactor employed in this study and COD removal followed a modified pseudo-first order kinetic model. The COD removal efficiency increased with the decrease of H(2)O(2) to Fe(2+) molar ratio and hydraulic retention time. There existed an optimal inter-electrode gap or H(2)O(2) dosage so that the highest COD removal was achieved. Nearly the same COD removal was obtained at initial pH 3 and 5, but the steady state was quickly achieved at initial pH 3. The organic pollutants in the leachate were analyzed through a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. About 73 organics were detected in the leachate, and 52 of which were completely removed after EF-Fere process.