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Concept: Gallstone


BACKGROUND: Situs inversus totalis represents an unusual anomaly characterized by a mirror-image transposition of the abdominal and thoracic viscera. It often occurs concomitantly with other disorders that make difficult diagnosis and management of abdominal pathology. The relationship between situs inversus totalis and cancer remains unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 33-year old Guinean man with situs inversus totalis who presented with obstructive jaundice. Imaging and endoscopic modalities demonstrated a mass of distal common bile duct which biopsy identified an adenocarcinoma. The patient was successfully treated by cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy followed by adjuvant chemoradiation and he is doing well without recurrence 8 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of bile duct adenocarcinoma in patient with situs inversus totalis accounts as a rare coincidence. In this setting, when the tumor is resectable, surgical management should be considered without contraindication and must be preceded by a careful preoperative staging.

Concepts: Cancer, Digestive system, Liver, Hepatology, Abdomen, Thorax, Situs inversus, Gallstone


: In this review of the literature, we analyze the indications for preoperative drainage in jaundiced patients who are candidates for pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) or major hepatectomy due to periampullary or proximal bile duct neoplasms.

Concepts: Digestive system, Liver, Hepatology, Bile, Pancreatic cancer, Bile duct, Cholangiocarcinoma, Gallstone


We propose a management strategy for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis according to the severity assessment. For Grade I (mild) acute cholangitis, initial medical treatment including the use of antimicrobial agents may be sufficient for most cases. For non-responders to initial medical treatment, biliary drainage should be considered. For Grade II (moderate) acute cholangitis, early biliary drainage should be performed along with the administration of antibiotics. For Grade III (severe) acute cholangitis, appropriate organ support is required. After hemodynamic stabilization has been achieved, urgent endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be performed. In patients with Grade II (moderate) and Grade III (severe) acute cholangitis, treatment for the underlying etiology including endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical treatment should be performed after the patient’s general condition has been improved. In patients with Grade I (mild) acute cholangitis, treatment for etiology such as endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis might be performed simultaneously, if possible, with biliary drainage. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the first-line treatment in patients with Grade I (mild) acute cholecystitis while in patients with Grade II (moderate) acute cholecystitis, delayed/elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy after initial medical treatment with antimicrobial agent is the first-line treatment. In non-responders to initial medical treatment, gallbladder drainage should be considered. In patients with Grade III (severe) acute cholecystitis, appropriate organ support in addition to initial medical treatment is necessary. Urgent or early gallbladder drainage is recommended. Elective cholecystectomy can be performed after the improvement of the acute inflammatory process.Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via .

Concepts: Medicine, Microbiology, Surgery, Hepatology, Laparoscopic surgery, Antimicrobial, Ascending cholangitis, Gallstone


BACKGROUND: As life expectancy rises worldwide and the prevalence of gallstones increases with age, the number of very elderly patients requiring treatment for gallstone diseases is increasing. The aim of this study was to compare the results of cholecystectomy in patients 80 years or older according to different clinical presentations. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 81 patients 80 years or older. Indications for surgery were stratified into three groups: outpatients (symptomatic chronic cholecystitis), inpatients (complicated gallstone diseases), and urgent patients (acute cholecystitis). Data analysis included age, sex, the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, indication for surgery, length of hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 83.9 (range 80-94 years); there were 34 (42%) men. Thirty patients were operated on for acute cholecystitis. Patients in the urgency group significantly required the ICU more often, required a longer hospital stay, and had more complications, with 32% mortality. No differences were found between inpatients and outpatients, with both groups presenting low morbidity, no mortality, and the same postoperative length of stay. CONCLUSION: More than 80% of the patients were operated on because of complicated gallstone disease. Although the outcomes of patients undergoing semielective cholecystectomy were similar to those of patients treated as outpatients, patients operated with acute cholecystitis presented extremely high morbidity and mortality rates. Thus, we can only recommend that early elective cholecystectomy be performed in elderly patients as soon as they are found to have symptomatic gallstones. Also, further trials are required to elucidate the optimal management of acute cholecystitis in elderly patients.

Concepts: Death, Mortality rate, Surgery, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Life expectancy, Gallstone, Cholecystitis


BACKGROUND: There is no doubt that urgent biliary decompression needs to be done in case of severe acute cholangitis. However, it remains to be determined how early biliary decompression should be performed and elective intervention would be comparable to urgent intervention, in case of mild to moderate choledocholithiasis associated cholangitis. METHODS: One hundred ninety-five patients were enrolled who were diagnosed with mild to moderate cholangitis with common bile duct (CBD) stones between January 2006 and August 2010. They were divided into two groups according to door to intervention time, and urgent (≤24 h, n = 130) versus elective (>24 h, n = 82). Primary outcomes of this study were technical success rate (CBD stones removal) and clinical success rate (improvement of cholangitis) between the two groups. Hospital stay and intervention-related complications were also evaluated. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in technical, clinical success rate and intervention-related complications between the urgent and elective groups (P = 0.737, 0.285, 0.398, respectively). Patients in the urgent group had significantly shorter hospitalization than in the elective group (6.8 vs. 9.2 days, P < 0.001), and furthermore, intervention to discharge time was also significantly shorter by 1.1 days in the urgent group (P = 0.035). In terms of laboratory parameters, initial CRP level was the only factor correlated with hospital stay and intervention to discharge time. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that urgent ERCP would be recommended in the management of patients with CBD stone-related mild to moderate acute cholangitis because of the advantage of short hospital stay and intervention to discharge time.

Concepts: Statistical significance, Digestive system, Hepatology, Bile duct, Ascending cholangitis, Common bile duct, Gallstone, Choledocholithiasis


Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for biliary dyskinesia; however, long-term outcomes remain unclear.

Concepts: Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Gallstone, Dyskinesia, Biliary dyskinesia


Abstract The current rate of bile duct injury (BDI) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is 0.4%, which is an unacceptable outcome. Several surgical approaches have been suggested to mitigate the occurrence of this dreaded complication. We propose a standardized approach, using Calot’s node as a critical anatomical landmark to guide gallbladder dissection and avoid BDI. We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively gathered database of 907 laparoscopic cholecystectomies using this standardized approach in our practice over a 5-year period. To date we have had no BDI and no cystic duct leak. Therefore, we suggest identification of Calot’s node as an additional method to avoid BDI during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Concepts: Hepatology, Bile, Bile duct, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Gallstone, Common hepatic duct, Cystic duct


An expert recommendation conference was conducted to identify factors associated with adverse events during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with the goal of deriving expert recommendations for the reduction of biliary and vascular injury. Nineteen hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgeons from high-volume surgery centers in six countries comprised the Research Institute Against Cancer of the Digestive System (IRCAD) Recommendations Group. Systematic search of PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase was conducted. Using nominal group technique, structured group meetings were held to identify key items for safer LC. Consensus was achieved when 80% of respondents ranked an item as 1 or 2 (Likert scale 1-4). Seventy-one IRCAD HPB course participants assessed the expert recommendations which were compared to responses of 37 general surgery course participants. The IRCAD recommendations were structured in seven statements. The key topics included exposure of the operative field, appropriate use of energy device and establishment of the critical view of safety (CVS), systematic preoperative imaging, cholangiogram and alternative techniques, role of partial and dome-down (fundus-first) cholecystectomy. Highest consensus was achieved on the importance of the CVS as well as dome-down technique and partial cholecystectomy as alternative techniques. The put forward IRCAD recommendations may help to promote safe surgical practice of LC and initiate specific training to avoid adverse events.

Concepts: Surgery, Surgeon, Digestion, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Likert scale, Prime number, Gallstone


Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of transcystic biliary drainage with nasobiliary drainage during primary closure following laparoscopic choledochotomy. Methods: The clinical data of 106 patients with cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis treated by laparoscopy at Department of General Surgery, Danyang People’s Hospital from May 2014 to June 2017 were analyzed prospectively. The patients were divided into 2 groups by means of random number method: the study group was treated with transcystic biliary drainage, and the control group adopted nasobiliary drainage. The operation time, postoperative drainage volume, postoperative hospital stay and postoperative complications were compared between the 2 groups. Results: All patients in the two groups completed the operation successfully. Compared with nasobiliary drainage, the operation time of transcystic biliary drainage was shortened ((133.9±14.7) minutes vs. (143.3±21.7) minutes, t=-2.617, P<0.05). Postoperative hospital stay ((8.2±1.7) days vs. (7.7±2.5) days), the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant(P>0.05). The quantity of bile drainage was no significant difference in the two groups of patients. There were 1 case of duct obstruction and 2 cases of catheter slippage during transcystic biliary drainage, without causing bile leakage. During nasobiliary drainage, there were 3 cases of catheter obstruction, 1 case of catheter slippage, 2 cases of self extubation, 1 case of bile peritonitis caused by catheter blockage, transferred to laparotomy and T tube drainage. The patients were followed up for 1 month to 17 months, with an average of 8 months. B-ultrasound showed no bile duct stenosis and hepatic function was normal. Conclusions: Transcystic biliary drainage could achieve the same biliary drainage as well as nasobiliary drainage during primary closure following laparoscopic choledochotomy. In addition, transcystic biliary drainage maintain the physiological function of bile duct, it is simple and minimally invasive under certain conditions.

Concepts: Surgery, Statistical significance, Liver, Addition, Hepatology, Bile, Bile duct, Gallstone


Background:Concern exists regarding gallstones as an adverse event of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs; <800 kcal per day).Objective:To assess the risk of symptomatic gallstones requiring hospital care and/or cholecystectomy in a commercial weight loss program using VLCD or low-calorie diet (LCD).Design:A 1-year matched cohort study of consecutively enrolled adults in a commercial weight loss program conducted at 28 Swedish centers between 2006 and 2009. A 3-month weight loss phase of VLCD (500 kcal per day) or LCD (1200-1500 kcal per day) was followed by a 9-month weight maintenance phase. Matching (1:1) was performed by age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference and gallstone history (n=3320:3320). Gallstone and cholecystectomy data were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register.Results:One-year weight loss was greater in the VLCD than in the LCD group (-11.1 versus -8.1 kg; adjusted difference, -2.8 kg, 95% CI -3.1 to -2.4; P<0.001). During 6361 person-years, 48 and 14 gallstones requiring hospital care occurred in the VLCD and LCD groups, respectively, (152 versus 44/10 000 person-years; hazard ratio, 3.4, 95% CI 1.8-6.3; P<0.001; number-needed-to-harm, 92, 95% CI 63-168; P<0.001). Of the 62 gallstone events, 38 (61%) resulted in cholecystectomy (29 versus 9; hazard ratio, 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.8; P=0.003; number-needed-to-harm, 151, 95% CI 94-377; P<0.001). Adjusting for 3-month weight loss attenuated the hazard ratios, but the risk remained higher with VLCD than LCD for gallstones (2.5, 95% CI 1.3-5.1; P=0.009) and became borderline for cholecystectomy (2.2, 95% CI 0.9-5.2; P=0.08).Conclusion:The risk of symptomatic gallstones requiring hospitalization or cholecystectomy, albeit low, was 3-fold greater with VLCD than LCD during the 1-year commercial weight loss program.

Concepts: Hospital, Obesity, Surgery, Relative risk, Mass, Body mass index, Cholecystectomy, Gallstone