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Concept: Gallic acid


Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared using a sonochemical method under atmospheric conditions at a Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) molar ratio of 1:2. The iron oxide nanoparticles were subsequently coated with chitosan and gallic acid to produce a core-shell structure.

Concepts: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Iron oxide, Magnetite, Gallic acid


Activity-guided isolation of a methanolic extract of Galla Rhois using pancreatic lipase and 3T3-L1 adipocytes led to the isolation of seven phenolic compounds: protoaphin-fb (1), 2-O-digalloyl-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose (2), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose (3), 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose (4), 3-hydroxy-5-methoxy-phenol 1-O-b-D-glucoside (5), methylgallate (6), and gallic acid (7). Their structures were established on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase, and compounds 1-5 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on this enzyme, with IC50 values ranging from 30.6 ± 2.4 to 3.5 ± 0.5 mM. In addition, the highly galloylated compound 2 was also found to induce potent inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

Concepts: Enzyme, Pancreas, Cytoplasm, Fat, Adipocyte, Lipase, Gallic acid, Pancreatic lipase


Considering the indigenous utilization of Quercus incana Roxb., the present study deals with the investigation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, and antimicrobial activity of Q. incana Roxb. In vitro antioxidant activity of the plant fractions were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging method. Total phenolic contents were determined by gallic acid equivalent and antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that Q. incana Roxb. showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. n-Butanol fraction showed maximum activity against Micrococcus leuteus with 19 mm zone of inhibition. n-Butanol fraction of Q. incana Roxb. showed immense antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (32 mm ± 0.55) and A. flavus (28 mm ± 0.45). Similarly n-butanol fraction showed relatively good antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 55.4 ± 0.21 μg/mL. The NO scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.21 ± 0.31 μg/mL) was fairly good compared to other fractions. The current study of Q. incana Roxb. suggests the presences of synergetic action of some biological active compounds that may be present in the leaves of medicinal plant. Further studies are needed to better characterize the important active constituents responsible for the antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Radical, Nitric oxide, Tannin, Gram-negative bacteria, Gallic acid, Gram-positive bacteria


Profound research has been done on the medicinal value of Brassica nigra (BN) seeds, and the leaves of the plant have been investigated in this study. The methanol extracts of the leaves were subjected to several in vitro studies. The antioxidant activity of methanol extract was demonstrated with a wide range of concentration, 10-500 µg mL(-1), and the antioxidant activity increased with the increase in concentration. Total phenol content was found to be 171.73 ± 5.043 gallic acid equivalents and the total flavonoid content 7.45 ± 0.0945 quercetin equivalents. Further quantification and identification of the compounds were done by HPTLC and GC-MS analyses. The predominant phenolic compounds determined by HPTLC were gallic acid, followed by quercetin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rutin. The free radical quenching property of BN leaf extract suggests the presence of bioactive natural compounds.

Concepts: Catechin, Quercetin, Caffeic acid, Resveratrol, Phenols, Ferulic acid, Gallic acid, Vanillin


The antioxidant properties of extracts of Sybaris liquorice roots have been assessed using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity assay. The extracts, obtained by Soxhlet extraction (Et(2)O, AcOEt, MeOH and BuOH) of the yellow (inner part) and brown (cortex) root powders ensuing from decortication of the raw dry roots, followed by separation and powderisation, were analysed for their scavenging activity by evaluating the colourimetric decrease in the absorbance of DPPH. The highest antioxidant activity (98.39 ± 0.56%) was observed in the case of the Et(2)O extract of the brown powder, at a concentration of 3.33 mg mL(-1). Moreover, the total phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and expressed as milligram gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry extract. Our results show that the Et(2)O extract of the liquorice root cortex could be used as an attractive natural source of antioxidant additives for food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical applications.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Analytical chemistry, Root, Tannin, Polyphenol antioxidant, Gallic acid, Propyl gallate, Lowry protein assay


Triphala, a herbal formula composed of the three fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Haritaki, Family: Combretaceae), Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Bibhitaki, Family: Combretaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. or Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Amalaki or the Indian gooseberry, Family: Euphorbiaceae) is considered to be a universal panacea in the traditional Indian system of medicine the Ayurveda. It has been described in the Ayurveda text as a “Rasayana' and to rejuvenat the debilitated organs. Ayurvedic physicians use Triphala for many ailments but most importantly to treat various gastrointestinal disorders. Scientific studies carried out in the past two decades have validated many of the ethnomedicinal claims and researches have shown Triphala to possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antibacterial, antimutagenic, wound healing, anticariogenic, antistress, adaptogenic, hypoglycaemic, anticancer, chemoprotective, radioprotective and chemopreventive effects. Clinical studies have also shown that Triphala was found to have good laxative property, to improve appetite and reduce gastric hyperacidity. Studies have also shown that Triphala was effective in preventing dental caries and that this effect was equal to that of chlorhexidine. The current review addresses the validated pharmacological properties of Triphala and also emphasizes on aspects that need further investigation for its future clinic application.

Concepts: Ayurveda, Gallic acid, Terminalia chebula, Berries, Rasayana, Phyllanthus emblica, Phyllanthus, Phyllanthaceae


Extractable and bound proanthocyanidins and hydrolyzable tannins were characterized in Nonpareil, Carmel and Butte almond varieties from California, with n = 3 samples/variety. Bound proanthocyanidins were recovered from extracted defatted almond residue by hydrolysis with 4 N sodium hydroxide, and represented 3 to 21% of the total proanthocyanidin content among varieties. The bound proanthocyanidins were recovered primarily as monomers and dimers. In contrast, acid hydrolysis of extracted almond residue did not yield bound proanthocyanidins. Hydrolysable tannins were characterized in aqueous acetone extracts of defatted almond using two dimensional TLC, and further quantitated by HPLC following acid hydrolysis. Almond hydrolyzable tannin content was 54.7 ± 2.3 mg ellagic acid and 27.4 ± 7.3 mg gallic acid per 100 g almond among varieties. The tannin contents of Nonpareil, Carmel, and Butte almond varieties were not significantly different. Thus, bound proanthocyanidins and hydrolyzable tannins significantly contribute to almond polyphenol content.

Concepts: Sodium hydroxide, Catechin, Tannin, Proanthocyanidin, Polyphenol, Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, Pomegranate


Abstract The polyphenol, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG) has been found to exhibit a host of positive pharmacologic activities, including anti-cancer and anti-diabetic. Little is known about the mode of action of PGG in yielding these positive activities. We show here that PGG is a potent inhibitor of IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide, amylin) aggregation. Preventing the initial aggregation event of IAPP is one strategy for slowing, and possibly preventing, the toxic effects of IAPP oligomeric intermediates. Equal molar ratios of PGG to IAPP substantially reduced the ability of IAPP to bind thioflavin T. Atomic force microscopy revealed that PGG prevented amyloid-based fiber formation under rigorous conditions conducive to forming IAPP aggregates. PGG was also found to protect PC12 rat cells from toxic IAPP. PGG was compared to the known amyloid inhibitors (and structural relatives); tannic acid and gallic acid. In every test, PGG was far superior to tannic and gallic acids at inhibiting amyloid aggregation. These results indicate that PGG is a potent inhibitor of IAPP amyloid aggregation and a potential lead molecule for development of an amyloid inhibiting therapeutic.

Concepts: Protein, Amyloid, Amylin, Inhibitor, Toxicity, Tannin, Gallic acid, Polyphenols


Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40 °C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia.

Concepts: Plant, Acetic acid, Carboxylic acid, Tannin, Gallic acid, Pomegranate, Terminalia chebula, Raspberry


A novel fungal strain, Aspergillus ficuum Gim 3.6, was evaluated for its tannase-producing capability in the wheat bran-based solid state fermentation. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis revealed that the strain was able to degrade tannic acid to gallic acid and pyrogallol during the fermentation process. Quantitation of enzyme activity demonstrated that this strain was capable of producing a relatively high yield of extracellular tannase. Single-factor optimization of process parameter resulted in high yield of tannase after 60 h of incubation at a pH of 5.0 at 30°C, 1 ml of inoculum sizeand 1:1 of solid-liquid ratio in the presence of 2.0% (w/v) tannic acid as inducer. The potential of aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) for the purification of tannase was investigated. Influence of various parameters such as phase-forming salt, molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG), pH, and stability ratio on tannase partition and purification was studied. In all the systems, the target enzyme was observed to preferentially partition to the PEG-rich top phase, and the best result of purification (2.74-fold) with an enzyme activity recovery of 77.17% was obtained in the system containing 17% (w/w) sodium citrate and 18.18% (w/w) PEG1000, at pH 7.0.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Acid, Enzyme, PH, Tannin, Gallic acid, Pyrogallol, Astringent flavors