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Concept: Gallbladder polyp

168

INTRODUCTION: The surgery of gallbladder polyps is not well defined due to the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the management of polyps in Spain, and a review of the literature and treatment standards. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The reports on cholecystectomy with gallbladder polyps (GBP) were extracted from the Pathology data base. Patients subjected to surgery with a diagnosis of GBP were identified in the Surgery data base. A single list was prepared and a review was made of the clinical histories, including, age, gender, clinical data, ultrasound report, and histopathology report. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients, with a median age of 51 years (range 22-83), 21 of whom were female, were included. The ultrasound diagnosis was GBP in 19 patients, GBP and calculi in 7 cases, and calculi with no polyps in 4 cases. Other diagnoses concurrent with GBP were multiple haemangiomas (3), large single simple cyst (1), and multiple simple cysts (1). Eleven patients had typical pain (biliary origin), 5 of which showed no calculi on ultrasound. Eight had non-specific pain, which persisted in 3 cases after the cholecystectomy. Pseudopolyps were found in 20 gallbladders, and true polyps in 4 cases. In 3 cases, polyps were not found in the pathology study. CONCLUSIONS: The ultrasound report must specify the size, shape, and number of polyps. Patients with biliary type pain would benefit from a cholecystectomy. The probability of malignancy is minimum if the GBP is less than 10mm and aged under 50 years, and a cholecystectomy is not required. A GBP greater than 10mm should be an indication of cholecystectomy.

Concepts: Medical terms, Pathology, Hospital, Medical imaging, Histopathology, Physician, Ovarian cyst, Gallbladder polyp

152

Adenomyomatosis of gallbladder is an acquired hyperplastic lesion, characterized by focal or diffuse thickening of the gallbladder with intramural cysts or echogenic areas with comet tail on ultrasonography. But in some cases, especially in the localized fundal type of adenomyomatosis, the intramural anechoic cystic spaces are uncertainty which causes difficult to differential adenomyomatosis from GB cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS) in the diagnosis of the fundal localized type of gallbladder adenomyomatosis.

Concepts: Cyst, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, Differential diagnosis, Comet, Gallbladder polyp

151

Detection of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder is increasing in conjunction with better imaging modalities. Accepted management of these lesions depends on their size and symptomatology. Polyps that are symptomatic and/or greater than 10 mm are generally removed, while smaller, asymptomatic polyps simply monitored. Here, a case of carcinoma-in-situ is presented in a 7 mm gallbladder polyp. A 25-year-old woman, who had undergone a routine cholecystectomy, was found to have an incidental 7 mm polyp containing carcinoma in situ. She had few to no risk factors to alert to her condition. There are few reported cases of cancer transformation in gallbladder polyps smaller than 10 mm reported in the literature. The overwhelming consensus, barring significant risk factors for cancer being present, is that such lesions should be monitored until they become symptomatic or develop signs suspicious for malignancy. In our patient’s case this could have led to the possibility of missing a neoplastic lesion, which could then have gone on to develop invasive cancer. As gallbladder carcinoma is an aggressive cancer, this may have led to a tragic outcome.

Concepts: Cancer, Carcinoma in situ, Anatomical pathology, Neoplasm, Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Polyp, Gallbladder polyp

149

Gallbladder polyps (GBP) are a common clinical finding that can express malignant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vegetarianism protects against GBP, together with other putative risk factors.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Medical statistics, Gallbladder, Polyp, Vegetarianism, Gallbladder polyp

26

Gallbladder polyps (GBPs) are incidentally seen in 4% to 7% of adults on abdominal ultrasounds. Most GBPs are benign cholesterol polyps, adenomyomatosis, or inflammatory polyps. Currently, cholecystectomy is widely accepted as appropriate care for polyps 10 mm or larger as they present a higher risk for malignancy. However, the management of small polyps smaller than 10 mm has continued to be a dilemma to clinicians and radiologists. Many authors support a nonoperative approach with imaging follow-up for polyps smaller than 10 mm, as most have been shown to be benign. However, small polyps do have the potential to be neoplastic adenomas and become malignant. In this report, we will describe a case of a tiny GBP that subsequently developed into a 20-mm carcinoma over a period of 2 years.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Medical terms, Anatomical pathology, Abdomen, Gallbladder, Gallbladder polyp

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The overall aim of this systematic review was to determine whether ultrasound (US) follow up for gallbladder polyps (GBPs) measuring less than 10 mms is necessary.

Concepts: Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Measurement, Gallbladder polyp

25

Gallbladder polyps are seen on as many as 7% of gallbladder ultrasonographic images. The differential diagnosis for a polypoid gallbladder mass is wide and includes pseudotumors, as well as benign and malignant tumors. Tumefactive sludge may be mistaken for a gallbladder polyp. Pseudotumors include cholesterol polyps, adenomyomatosis, and inflammatory polyps, and they occur in that order of frequency. The most common benign and malignant tumors are adenomas and primary adenocarcinoma, respectively. Polyp size, shape, and other ancillary imaging findings, such as a wide base, wall thickening, and coexistent gallstones, are pertinent items to report when gallbladder polyps are discovered. These findings, as well as patient age and risk factors for gallbladder cancer, guide clinical decision making. Symptomatic polyps without other cause for symptoms, an age over 50 years, and the presence of gallstones are generally considered indications for cholecystectomy. Incidentally noted pedunculated polyps smaller than 5 mm generally do not require follow-up. Polyps that are 6-10 mm require follow-up, although neither the frequency nor the length of follow-up has been established. Polyps that are larger than 10 mm are typically excised, although lower size thresholds for cholecystectomy may be considered for patients with increased risk for gallbladder carcinoma, such as patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. (©)RSNA, 2015.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Medical terms, Risk, Hepatology, Adenocarcinoma, Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Gallbladder polyp

25

Fatty liver is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and is a known risk factor for colorectal neoplasia (CRN). Gallbladder (GB) polyps share many common risk factors with CRN. However, studies evaluating CRN risk according to fatty liver severity and the presence of GB polyps are rare.

Concepts: Liver, Hepatology, Bile, Peritoneum, Gallbladder, Gallbladder polyp

24

Gall bladder necrosis and rupture are life-threatening conditions in dogs requiring surgical intervention and early diagnosis is essential. Human patients with suspected gall bladder necrosis/rupture are commonly evaluated with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), however this procedure has not been described in dogs with suspected gall bladder necrosis/rupture. In a prospective diagnostic cohort study, CEUS (using SonoVue contrast medium) was performed in 93 dogs with gallbladder lesions identified by abdominal conventional ultrasonography. Necrosis/rupture was identified by CEUS as a focal lack of enhancement of the gallbladder wall. Dogs with positive CEUS finding for necrosis/rupture (complete lack of regional wall enhancement) underwent immediate surgery as did dogs with other biliary disorders requiring surgery. Dogs with negative CEUS findings or those not requiring surgery were managed medically. In cases undergoing surgery, necrosis/rupture was confirmed intraoperatively (and via histopathology). Absence of necrosis/rupture was confirmed either intraoperatively (via histopathology) or was assumed to be absent by complete recovery with medical management. Forty-nine dogs underwent surgery and cholecystectomy: 24 had necrosis/rupture. CEUS was more accurate (100% sensitive and specific) in diagnosing gallbladder wall necrosis/rupture than conventional ultrasonography (75% sensitive and 81% specific) (P < 0.03). In conclusion, CEUS provides accurate characterization of gallbladder wall integrity that can impact decisions regarding clinical management, either surgical or medical.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Liver, Hepatology, Bile, Abdomen, Common hepatic duct, Gallbladder polyp

23

Gallbladder (GB) adenomyomatosis (ADM) is a benign, acquired anomaly, characterized by hypertrophy of the mucosal epithelium that invaginates into the interstices of a thickened muscularis forming so-called Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. There are three forms of ADM: segmental, fundal and more rarely, diffuse. Etiology and pathogenesis are not well understood but chronic inflammation of the GB is a necessary precursor. Prevalence of ADM in cholecystectomy specimens is estimated between 1% and 9% with a balanced sex ratio; the incidence increases after the age of 50. ADM, although usually asymptomatic, can manifest as abdominal pain or hepatic colic, even in the absence of associated gallstones (50% to 90% of cases). ADM can also be revealed by an attack of acalculous cholecystitis. Pre-operative diagnosis is based mainly on ultrasound (US), which identifies intra-parietal pseudo-cystic images and “comet tail” artifacts. MRI with MRI cholangiography sequences is the reference examination with characteristic “pearl necklace” images. Symptomatic ADM is an indication for cholecystectomy, which results in complete disappearance of symptoms. Asymptomatic ADM is not an indication for surgery, but the radiological diagnosis must be beyond any doubt. If there is any diagnostic doubt about the possibility of GB cancer, a cholecystectomy is justified. The discovery of ADM in a cholecystectomy specimen does not require special surveillance.

Concepts: Medical terms, Pathology, Liver, Greek loanwords, Abdominal pain, Hepatology, Gallbladder, Gallbladder polyp