Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Galicia


Galicia is an Autonomous Community located in the north-west of Spain. As a starting point to implement mitigation and adaptation measures to climate change, a regional greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is needed. So far, the only regional GHG inventories available are limited to the territorial emissions of those production activities which are expected to cause major environmental degradation. An alternative approach has been followed here to quantify all the on-site (direct) and embodied (indirect) GHG emissions related to all Galician production and consumption activities. The carbon footprint (CF) was calculated following the territorial life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology for data collection, that combines bottom-up and top-down approaches. The most up-to-date statistical data and life cycle inventories available were used to compute all GHG emissions. This case study represents a leap of scale when compared to existing studies, thus addressing the issue of double counting, which arises when considering all the production activities of a large region. The CF of the consumption activities in Galicia is 17.8 ktCO2e/year, with 88% allocated to Galician inhabitants and 12% to tourist consumption. The proposed methodology also identifies the main important contributors to GHG emissions and shows where regional reduction efforts should be made. The major contributor to the CF of inhabitants is housing (32%), followed by food consumption (29%). Within the CF of tourist consumption, the share of transport is highest (59%), followed by housing (26%). The CF of Galician production reaches 34.9 MtCO2e/y, and its major contributor is electricity production (21%), followed by food manufacturing (19%). Our results have been compared to those reported for other regions, actions aimed at reducing GHG emissions have been proposed, and data gaps and limitations identified.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Climate change, Spain, Natural gas, Galicia, Greenhouse gas, Life cycle assessment, Carbon footprint


The human populations of the Iberian Peninsula are the varied result of a complex mixture of cultures throughout history, and are separated by clear social, cultural, linguistic or geographic barriers. The stronger genetic differences between closely related populations occur in the northern third of Spain, a phenomenon commonly known as “micro-differentiation”. It has been argued and discussed how this form of genetic structuring can be related to both the rugged landscape and the ancient societies of Northern Iberia, but this is difficult to test in most regions due to the intense human mobility of previous centuries. Nevertheless, the Spanish autonomous community of Asturias shows a complex history which hints of a certain isolation of its population. This, joined together with a difficult terrain full of deep valleys and steep mountains, makes it suitable for performing a study of genetic structure, based on mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome markers. Our analyses do not only show that there are micro-differentiation patterns inside the Asturian territory, but that these patterns are strikingly similar between both uniparental markers. The inference of barriers to gene flow also indicates that Asturian populations from the coastal north and the mountainous south seem to be relatively isolated from the rest of the territory. These findings are discussed in light of historic and geographic data and, coupled with previous evidence, show that the origin of the current genetic patterning might indeed lie in Roman and Pre-Roman sociopolitical divisions.

Concepts: DNA, Iberian Peninsula, Spain, Andalusia, Galicia, Spanish people, Iberians, Cantabria


To assess whether the present-day geographical variability of Spanish surnames mirrors historical phenomena occurred at the times of their introduction (13th-16th century), and to infer the possible effect of foreign immigration (about 11% of present-day) on the observed patterns of diversity, we have analyzed the frequency distribution of 33,753 unique surnames (tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times, according to the list of Spanish residents of the year 2008. Isonymy measures and surname distances have been computed for, and between, the 47 mainland Spanish provinces and compared to a numerical classification of corresponding language varieties spoken in Spain. The comparison of the two bootstrap consensus trees, representing surname and linguistic variability, suggests a similar picture; major clusters are located in the east (Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia), and in the north of the country (Asturias, Galicia, León). Remaining regions appear to be considerably homogeneous. We interpret this pattern as the long-lasting effect of the surname and linguistic normalization actively led by the Christian kingdoms of the north (Reigns of Castilla y León and Aragón) during and after the southwards reconquest (Reconquista) of the territories ruled by the Arabs from the 8th century to the late 15th century, that is when surnames became transmitted in a fixed way and when Castilian linguistic varieties became increasingly prestigious and spread out. The geography of contemporary surname and linguistic variability in Spain corresponds to the political geography at the end of the Middle-Ages. The synchronicity between surname adoption and the political and cultural effects of the Reconquista have permanently forged a Spanish identity that subsequent migrations, internal or external, did not deface.

Concepts: Middle Ages, Spanish language, Al-Andalus, Spain, Andalusia, Galicia, Asturias, Castile


OBJECTIVE: To describe the current situation of self-management initiatives in Spain. METHODS: We performed a descriptive study of self-management support initiatives in Spain from the perspective of the patient as expert. Three databases were searched in October 2010 (Pubmed, Scientific Electronic Library Online [SCIELO] and Indice Médico Español [IME]), using the following Keywords «paciente experto» (expert patient), «paciente activo» (active patient) and «apoyo al autocuidado» (self-management support). Web sites were also consulted, using the same key words. Of the initiatives found, we selected those with the most advanced development and continuity, using the perspective of the expert patient (in which patients have an active role) and with a systematic format and methodology. A questionnaire was designed and was sent to the heads of the selected initiatives in the last quarter of 2010. To update the information, the questionnaire was sent again between August and September, 2012. Subsequently, the web sites were visited to review their contents and presence in social networks. RESULTS: Seven initiatives were identified in the autonomous regions of Murcia, Andalusia, Galicia, Castile-La Mancha, Basque Country, and Catalonia. These initiatives used distinct methodologies, formats and assessment systems. CONCLUSIONS: In Spain, there is increasing interest in the development of self-management support programs, although their scope is limited and their impact is mostly unknown, except for patient satisfaction. There is a need for studies on results assessment to identify the impact of these initiatives in our setting, as well as for studies on their implementation to encourage the introduction of patient activation initiatives in routine clinical practice.

Concepts: Spain, Andalusia, Galicia, Autonomous communities of Spain, Basque Country, Provinces of Spain, Catalonia, Castile-La Mancha


Present work describes the radiation quality and dosimetric characterization performed on the micromachining station of the femtosecond STELA (Santiago TErawattLAser) of the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). For this aim, ionisation chambers, solid state detectors and radiochromic films were used. The results show the emission of pulsed X-ray produced by laser-accelerated electrons from the ablated material exhibiting both bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiation. Although this radiation was produced unintentionally, a high superficial dose rate can be achieved. Fortunately, this radiation can be stopped using small shielding to protect the personnel from its effects. Following the recommendations of this article, the yearly dose equivalent after installing the shielding were negligible.

Concepts: Electron, X-ray, Laser, Spain, Galicia, Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de los Caballeros, University of Santiago de Compostela


After publication of the article [1], it was brought to our attention that the author E. López-Díez is missing their second affiliation. The author would also like to indicate an affiliation to “Universidade de Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain”.

Concepts: HPV vaccine, Galicia, Vigo, University of Vigo, Pontevedra


This paper presents a Wearable Prototype for indoor mapping developed by the University of Vigo. The system is based on a Velodyne LiDAR, acquiring points with 16 rays for a simplistic or low-density 3D representation of reality. With this, a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (3D-SLAM) method is developed for the mapping and generation of 3D point clouds of scenarios deprived from GNSS signal. The quality of the system presented is validated through the comparison with a commercial indoor mapping system, Zeb-Revo, from the company GeoSLAM and with a terrestrial LiDAR, Faro Focus3DX330. The first is considered as a relative reference with other mobile systems and is chosen due to its use of the same principle for mapping: SLAM techniques based on Robot Operating System (ROS), while the second is taken as ground-truth for the determination of the final accuracy of the system regarding reality. Results show that the accuracy of the system is mainly determined by the accuracy of the sensor, with little increment in the error introduced by the mapping algorithm.

Concepts: The Final, Robotics, Galicia, Point, Operating system, Simultaneous localization and mapping, Vigo


Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (E. globulus, Myrtaceae) is used in Europe as a traditional folk remedy for inflammation-related disorders such as arthritis, diabetes, asthma, and gout. We investigated this study to evaluate the protective effects of E. globulus extract (EG) on inflammatory responses, and provide scientific and mechanistic evidence in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. LPS-stimulated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were used to study the regulatory effect of EG on inflammasome activation in vitro. Monosodium urate (MSU)-induced peritonitis was used to study the effect of EG in an in vivo murine model. EG suppressed IL-1β secretion via the regulation of apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) oligomerization and caspase-1 maturation, leading to the inhibition of inflammasome activation. In the in vivo study, EG suppressed the MSU-induced peritonitis by attenuating interleukin (IL)-1β, providing scientific support for its traditional use in the treatment of inflammation-related disorders.

Concepts: Inflammation, Model organism, In vivo, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus, In vitro, Eucalyptus oil, Galicia


Social inequalities have been associated with morbidity and mortality. Gender, ethnic group and inequalities were studied in an adolescent population to analyze alcohol, tobacco and cannabis consumption. We carried out a cross-sectional study of pupils from high schools in Burela (northern Spain) (n=238). We used the “Factors de Risc en Estudiants de Secundária” questionnaire designed by Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona.

Concepts: Sociology, Greek loanwords, Adolescence, High school, Spain, Galicia, Autonomous communities of Spain, Polyethnicity


We evaluated the effect of leaves of native and exotic tree species on the feeding activity and performance of the larvae of Triplectides gracilis, a typical caddisfly shredder in Atlantic Forest streams. Leaves of four native species that differ in chemistry and toughness (Hoffmannia dusenii, Miconia chartacea, Myrcia lineata and Styrax pohlii) and the exotic Eucalyptus globulus were used to determine food preferences and rates of consumption, production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM), growth and survival of shredders. We hypothesized that the consumption rates of leaves of Eucalyptus and their effects on the growth and survival of shredders could be predicted by leaf chemistry and toughness. The larvae preferred to feed on soft leaves (H. dusenii and M. chartacea) independently of the content of nutrients (N and P) and secondary compounds (total phenolics). When such leaves were absent, they preferred E. globulus and did not consume the tough leaves (M. lineata and S. pohlii). In monodietary experiments, leaf consumption and FPOM production differed among the studied leaves, and the values observed for the E. globulus treatments were intermediate between the soft and tough leaves. The larvae that fed on H. dusenii and M. chartacea grew constantly over five weeks, while those that fed on E. globulus lost biomass. Larval survival was higher on leaves of H. dusenii, M. chartacea and S. pohlii than on E. globulus and M. lineata leaves. Although E. globulus was preferred over tougher leaves, long-term consumption of leaves of the exotic species may affect the abundance of T. gracilis in the studied stream. Additionally, our results suggest that leaf toughness can be a determining factor for the behavior of shredders where low-quality leaves are abundant, as in several tropical streams.

Concepts: Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus, Fern, Lepidoptera, Eucalyptus oil, Eucalyptol, Galicia, Pulpwood