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Concept: Gait abnormality


Background Uncontrolled pilot studies have suggested the efficacy of focused ultrasound thalamotomy with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance for the treatment of essential tremor. Methods We enrolled patients with moderate-to-severe essential tremor that had not responded to at least two trials of medical therapy and randomly assigned them in a 3:1 ratio to undergo unilateral focused ultrasound thalamotomy or a sham procedure. The Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor and the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire were administered at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Tremor assessments were videotaped and rated by an independent group of neurologists who were unaware of the treatment assignments. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in the change from baseline to 3 months in hand tremor, rated on a 32-point scale (with higher scores indicating more severe tremor). After 3 months, patients in the sham-procedure group could cross over to active treatment (the open-label extension cohort). Results Seventy-six patients were included in the analysis. Hand-tremor scores improved more after focused ultrasound thalamotomy (from 18.1 points at baseline to 9.6 at 3 months) than after the sham procedure (from 16.0 to 15.8 points); the between-group difference in the mean change was 8.3 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9 to 10.7; P<0.001). The improvement in the thalamotomy group was maintained at 12 months (change from baseline, 7.2 points; 95% CI, 6.1 to 8.3). Secondary outcome measures assessing disability and quality of life also improved with active treatment (the blinded thalamotomy cohort)as compared with the sham procedure (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Adverse events in the thalamotomy group included gait disturbance in 36% of patients and paresthesias or numbness in 38%; these adverse events persisted at 12 months in 9% and 14% of patients, respectively. Conclusions MRI-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy reduced hand tremor in patients with essential tremor. Side effects included sensory and gait disturbances. (Funded by InSightec and others; number, NCT01827904 .).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Medical imaging, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Parkinson's disease, Ultrasound, Gait abnormality


Pedobarography is commonly employed in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). However there is no evidence regarding test-retest reliability of this technique in this population, and therefore it was the purpose of the current study to address this clear gap. Dynamic plantar loading and foot geometry data were collected during barefoot gait with the EMED platform (Novel GmbH, Germany) from 10 patients with DPN over two sessions, separated by 28 days. Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and Coefficients of Variation (CoVs) were calculated to determine test-retest reliability. For dynamic plantar loading, reliability differed by outcome measure and foot region, with ICCs of >0.8 and CoVs of <15% observed in most cases. For dynamic foot geometry, ICCs of >0.88 and CoVs of <3% were observed for hallux angle, arch index and coefficient of spreading, while sub-arch angle was less reliable (ICC 0.76, CoV 23%). Overall, the current study observed high levels of test-retest reliability which were generally commensurate with that previously reported in healthy populations.

Concepts: Foot, Reliability, Algebra, Test-retest, Comparison of assessments, Peripheral neuropathy, Diabetic neuropathy, Gait abnormality


AIMS: Gait dysfunction in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) contributes to falling and subsequent injuries. Using a portable device (GaitMeter™), we measured gait parameters in DM patients with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) during flat surface walking. We hypothesized that DM patients with DPN and neuropathic pain (NeP) would have greater gait step variability than those with DPN without NeP. METHODS: Subjects with DPN and at least moderate NeP (DPN-P), DPN without NeP (DPN-NoP), DM without DPN, and control subjects without DM were assessed. Our outcome measure was gait variability for step length and velocity. DPN severity was quantified using the Toronto Clinical Scoring System and the Utah Early Neuropathy Score. Falls and their outcomes were retrospectively quantified. RESULTS: Each cohort contained≥20 subjects. Durations of DM and HbA1C were greatest amongst DPN cohorts. DPN-P participants had greater variability of step length and step velocity, except for DM only participants. DPN-P participants also reported greater risk of hospitalizations for fall-related injuries, and greater fear of falling. Modest negative relationships emerged for step length with step velocity, reported falls and pain severity. CONCLUSIONS: NeP contributes to gait variability, potentially contributing to the risk of falling in DM patients.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes, Rheumatoid arthritis, Pain, Glycated hemoglobin, Peripheral neuropathy, Diabetic neuropathy, Gait abnormality


Gait disorders are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and lead to a progressive reduction of function and quality of life.

Concepts: Life, Multiple sclerosis, Gait abnormality


AIMS: To evaluate the spatio-temporal variables of gait and the isometric muscle strength component of the ankle in patients with peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Also, verify the relationship between these variables and gait parameters. METHODS: This study involved 25 diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) participants (62.4±8.36 years) and 27 age-matched healthy control individuals (64.48±6.21 years). The assessment of the spatio-temporal parameters of gait was performed using an electronic baropodometry treadmill. Prior to the collection data, each participant was instructed to walk on the treadmill in her/his habitual self-selected speed. RESULTS: Diabetic neuropathy group showed impairment of gait, with a smaller stride and length speed of the cycle, and increased duration of support time. Restricted dorsiflexion mobility and increased plantarflexion mobility were found, with a decrease in muscle strength of the dorsiflexors and plantiflexors. There was a significant relationship between plantiflexor muscle strength and the length and speed of the gait cycle. Also the muscle strengths of the plantiflexors and dorsiflexors, and the range of motion of dorsiflexion were predictors of gait performance. CONCLUSIONS: The ankle, muscle strength and ankle mobility variables could explain changes in gait speed and range of motion in patients with DPN, allowing for the application of preventive strategies.

Concepts: Pain, Walking, Peripheral neuropathy, Diabetic neuropathy, Dorsiflexion, Myalgia, Gait abnormality


Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting toxicity of several commonly used chemotherapy drugs including taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and platinum compounds. Development of CIPN is highly variable, both in self-reported symptoms and functional consequences, and can be severe enough to alter dose intensity.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy regimens, Vincristine, Gait abnormality


Purpose Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) may persist after treatment ends and may lead to functional decline and falls. This study compared objective and self-report measures of physical function, gait patterns, and falls between women cancer survivors with and without symptoms of CIPN to identify targets for functional rehabilitation. Methods A secondary data analysis of 512 women cancer survivors (age, 62 ± 6 years; time since diagnosis, 5.8 ± 4.1 years) categorized and compared women self-reporting symptoms of CIPN (CIPN+) with asymptomatic women (CIPN-) on the following: maximal leg strength, timed chair stand, physical function battery, gait characteristics (speed; step number, rate, and length; base of support), self-report physical function and disability, and falls in the past year. Results After an average of 6 years after treatment, 47% of women still reported symptoms of CIPN. CIPN+ had significantly worse self-report and objectively measured function than did CIPN-, with the exception of maximal leg strength and base of support during a usual walk. Gait was slower among CIPN+, with those women taking significantly more, but slower and shorter, steps than did CIPN- (all P < .05). CIPN+ reported significantly more disability and 1.8 times the risk of falls compared with CIPN- ( P < .0001). Increasing symptom severity was linearly associated with worsening function, increasing disability, and higher fall risk (all P < .05). Conclusion This work makes a significant contribution toward understanding the functional impact of CIPN symptoms on cancer survivors. Remarkably, 47% of women in our sample had CIPN symptoms many years after treatment, together with worse function, greater disability, and more falls. CIPN must be assessed earlier in the clinical pathway, and strategies to limit symptom progression and to improve function must be included in clinical and survivorship care plans.

Concepts: Disease, Medical terms, Symptoms, Symptom, Fatigue, Peripheral neuropathy, Gait abnormality


Residual impairments and gait deviations post-stroke may lead to secondary musculoskeletal complications such as arthritis. This study explored the prevalence of arthritis and associated functional limitations in community-dwelling Canadians with and without stroke.

Concepts: Vasculitis, Aging-associated diseases, Gait analysis, Gait abnormality


This article presents a review of the methods used in recognition and analysis of the human gait from three different approaches: image processing, floor sensors and sensors placed on the body. Progress in new technologies has led the development of a series of devices and techniques which allow for objective evaluation, making measurements more efficient and effective and providing specialists with reliable information. Firstly, an introduction of the key gait parameters and semi-subjective methods is presented. Secondly, technologies and studies on the different objective methods are reviewed. Finally, based on the latest research, the characteristics of each method are discussed. 40% of the reviewed articles published in late 2012 and 2013 were related to non-wearable systems, 37.5% presented inertial sensor-based systems, and the remaining 22.5% corresponded to other wearable systems. An increasing number of research works demonstrate that various parameters such as precision, conformability, usability or transportability have indicated that the portable systems based on body sensors are promising methods for gait analysis.

Concepts: Evaluation, The Key, C, Analysis, Gait, Locomotion, Gait analysis, Gait abnormality


The genetic aetiology of neurodevelopmental defects is extremely diverse, and the lack of distinctive phenotypic features means that genetic criteria are often required for accurate diagnostic classification. We aimed to identify the causative genetic lesions in two families in which eight affected individuals displayed variable learning disability, spasticity and abnormal gait.

Concepts: Allele, Causality, Greek loanwords, Educational psychology, Gregor Mendel, Down syndrome, Disability, Gait abnormality