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Concept: Gaelic football


Cullen, BD, Cregg, CJ, Kelly, DT, Hughes, SM, Daly, PG, and Moyna, NM. Fitness profiling of elite level adolescent Gaelic football players. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 2096-2103, 2013-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric characteristics and fitness levels of elite level under 18 (U-18) Gaelic football players to establish normative centile scores for selected fitness parameters and to compare the physical and fitness characteristics relative to each playing position. A total of 265 male U-18 Gaelic football players (age: 16.96 ± 0.7 years; height: 178.11 ± 6.27 cm; weight: 72.07 ± 8.68 kg) participated in the study. According to positional roles, players were categorized as goalkeepers (n = 13), defenders (n = 113), midfielders (n = 30), and forwards (n = 109). Height and weight were measured, and skinfolds were taken before participants sequentially performed a sit and reach test (S&R), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), 5- and 20-m speed test, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YYIRT1). The percentage body fat was higher (p < 0.01) in goalkeepers than the other playing positions. Goalkeepers had a higher body mass index than defenders (p < 0.05) and forwards (p < 0.01). Midfielders and goalkeepers were taller (p < 0.01) and heavier (p < 0.01) than defenders and forwards. The total distance covered in the YYIRT1 was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in goalkeepers than the other playing positions. There was no significant positional difference in the performance scores in the S&R test, CMJ, SLJ, and 5- and 20-m running speed. The study findings indicate minimal differences in the anthropometric and physiological characteristics between playing positions in elite youth level Gaelic football players. The norm-referenced percentile scores will enable conditioning coaches to benchmark elite performance and design training programs.

Concepts: Percentile, Mass, Body mass index, Body fat percentage, Goalkeeper, Football, Gaelic football, International rules football


Gaelic Football and Hurling are two sporting codes within the Gaelic Athletic Association. The purpose of this study was to report the body composition phenotype of inter-county Gaelic athletic association players, comparing groups by code and field position. 190 senior, male, outfield inter-county players (144 hurlers and 46 Gaelic footballers) were recruited. Stature and body mass was measured, estimates of three components of body composition, i.e. lean mass, fat mass and bone mineral content was obtained by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and normative data for Gaelic athletic association athletes by code and position was compared. Other than in the midfield, there was limited difference in body composition between codes or playing position. Stature-corrected indices nullified any existing group differences between midfielders for both codes. Further comparisons with a non-athletic control group (n = 431) showed no difference for body mass index (BMI); however, the athletic group has a lower fat mass index, with a greater lean mass in accounting for the matched BMI between groups. In addition to providing previously unknown normative data for the Gaelic athletic association athlete, a proportional and independent tissue evaluation of body composition is given.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Mass, Body mass index, Gaelic Athletic Association, Gaelic football, Hurling


Metabolic power has not yet been investigated within elite Gaelic football. The aim of the current investigation was to compare the metabolic power demands between positional groups and examine the temporal profile of elite Gaelic football match play.

Concepts: The Current, Volt, Football, Gaelic football, International Rules Series, International rules football, Caid




Performance improvement is thought to occur through engagement in deliberate practice. Deliberate practice is predicted to be challenging, effortful, and not inherently enjoyable. Expert and intermediate level Gaelic football players executed two types of kicks during an acquisition phase and pre-, post-, and retention tests. During acquisition, participants self-selected how they practiced and rated the characteristics of deliberate practice for effort and enjoyment. The expert group predominantly practiced the skill they were weaker at and improved its performance across pre-, post- and retention tests. Participants in the expert group also rated their practice as more effortful and less enjoyable compared to those in the intermediate group. In contrast, participants in the intermediate group predominantly practiced the skill they were stronger at and improved their performance from pretest to posttest but not on the retention test. Findings provide support for deliberate practice theory and give some insight into how experts practice and improve their performance beyond its current level. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Better, Psychology, Critical thinking, Improve, Expert, All rights reserved, Skills, Gaelic football



 Gaelic games (Gaelic football and hurling) are indigenous Irish sports with increasing global participation in recent years. Limited information is available on longitudinal injury trends. Reviews of insurance claims can reveal the economic burden of injury and guide cost-effective injury-prevention programs.

Concepts: Ireland, Football, Gaelic games, Gaelic Athletic Association, Gaelic football, Hurling, Isle of Man, Sport in Ireland


Characteristic types of actions and training/matches loads of football goalkeepers show that goalkeeper’s performance differs from other football’s formations. Such situation may predispose to the occurrence of other kinds of injuries in this position. The aim of this study was to analyse epidemiology of injuries in young football goalkeepers.

Concepts: Goal, Gaelic football, International rules football


Competition related dietary intake has not yet been investigated in Gaelic football. The present study examined the pre-competition macronutrient intake of elite male Gaelic football players. Forty players from two teams completed a food diary on the two days preceding competition (DAY-1 & DAY-2) and on match date pre-match (MATCH-DAY). Carbohydrate intake was significantly greater on DAY-2 compared to DAY-1, for both absolute [295 ± 98 vs. 318 ± 77 g] (p = 0.048; -23.6 g [-47.3 to 0.2]; Cohen’s d = 0.27) and relative intake [3.4 ± 1.1 vs. 3.7 ± 1.0] (p = 0.027; -0.3 [-0.6 to -0.03]; Cohen’s d = 0.32). The number of players in accordance with and not in accordance with the guidelines for carbohydrate intake on DAY-2 was significantly different to an expected frequency distribution [χ2 (1) = 32.400; p = <0.001; ϕ = 0.9] with a greater number of players not meeting the guidelines [observed N = 2 vs. 38]. The number of players in accordance with and not in accordance with the recommendations for carbohydrate intake on MATCH-DAY was significantly different to an expected frequency distribution [χ2 (1) = 8.100; p = 0.004; ϕ = 0.45] with a greater number of players meeting the guidelines [observed N = 29 vs. 11]. The major finding from the current investigation was that a significantly greater number of players did not meet carbohydrate intake guidelines on the day before competition. Individualised nutritional interventions are required in order to modify current pre-match dietary intake.

Concepts: Nutrition, The Current, 1, Football, Gaelic football, International rules football, Caid