Bernard Pécoul and colleagues call for the establishment of a global biomedical R&D fund as a key priority of the G7 summit in June 2015.
Opioid abuse, including abuse of prescription opioids (“RxOs”) and illicit substances like heroin, is a serious public health issue in Europe. Currently, there is limited data on the magnitude of RxO abuse in Europe, despite increasing public and scientific interest in the issue. The purpose of this study was to use the best-available data to derive comparable estimates of the health care burden of RxO abuse in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom (EU5).
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Published almost 3 years ago
Efforts to understand the dramatic declines in mortality over the past century have focused on life expectancy. However, understanding changes in disparity in age of death is important to understanding mechanisms of mortality improvement and devising policy to promote health equity. We derive a novel decomposition of variance in age of death, a measure of inequality, and apply it to cause-specific contributions to the change in variance among the G7 countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States) from 1950 to 2010. We find that the causes of death that contributed most to declines in the variance are different from those that contributed most to increase in life expectancy; in particular, they affect mortality at younger ages. We also find that, for two leading causes of death [cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD)], there are no consistent relationships between changes in life expectancy and variance either within countries over time or between countries. These results show that promoting health at younger ages is critical for health equity and that policies to control cancer and CVD may have differing implications for equity.
The aim of this study was to determine the contemporary rate ratio of mortality and changes over time in individuals with vs without diabetes.
The prevalence of Th1/Th2 response, spleen changes and megakaryocytes were investigated in BALB/c mice (n=138) infected with Leishmania infantum, and treated with Leishmania infantum 30× (10(-30)) biotherapy - BioLi30×. We performed controlled experiments using 8-to-12-week-old mice, infected with 5×10(7)L. infantum promastigotes, divided into eight groups: G1 (healthy), G2 (infected with L. infantum), G3 (BioLi30× pre-treated), G4 (BioLi30× pre/post-treated), G5 (BioLi30× post-treated), G6 (Water 30× post-treated), G7 (Antimonium crudum 30× post-treated) and G8 (Glucantime® post-treated). G3-G7 groups were orally treated with their respective drugs diluted in filtered water (1:10), and G8 received Glucantime® (0.6mg/100µl of PBS), intraperitoneally. Spleen fragments were submitted to double blind histopathological evaluation and the number of megakaryocytes was counted. Besides, animals' serum was measured after 49days of infection, and cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12), as well as the Th1/Th2 correlation (IFN-γ/IL-4 and IFN-γ/IL-10), were analyzed. Spleen histological parameters were classified as: healthy appearance (G1); discreet (G3-G7), moderate (G2) and moderate to severe (G8) white pulp hyperplasia; proliferation of megakaryocytes (G2-G8), and intense disruption (G2-G8). All groups, except for G7, showed higher percentages of megakaryocytes per field ranging from 87% to 15%, when compared to healthy animals (G1). Th1 predominance in IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (comparing to G2) was detected in G4, G5, G6 and G7. Finally, pre/post (BioLi30x) and post-treatment (Antimonium crudum 30x) presented reduction of megakaryocytes/spleen changes due to immunomodulation animal process, controlling the infection process, probably by the Th1 cytokine predominance.
In Europe, pancreatic cancer (PC) accounts for approximately 2.6% of all new cancer cases and is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death. Despite substantial morbidity and mortality, limited data are available describing real-world treatment patterns and health care resource use in any European country. We evaluated PC-related treatment patterns and associated health care resource use among patients with metastatic PC in the United Kingdom and France.
Comparability of patient-reported outcome measures over different languages is essential to allow cross-national research. We investigate the comparability of the PROMIS Profile 29, a generic health-related quality of life measure, in general population samples in the UK, France, and Germany and present general population reference values.
National registers which document assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments are important for a range of stakeholders. Their websites and reports are a source of information for ART practitioners, (future) patients and the public. The aim of our study was to compare national ART registers in the three European countries with the largest populations and evaluate whether ART registers currently meet the information needs of the different groups.
To assess the real-world healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs associated with different treatment regimens used in the management of patients with relapsed multiple myeloma in the UK, France, and Italy.
The purpose of this study was to analyze data from the EuroTrak surveys performed from 2009 to 2015 in Germany, France, and the United Kingdom to identify factors that could account for the growth in hearing aid sales over that period.