SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Fur trade

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Beavers are the archetypal keystone species, which can profoundly alter ecosystem structure and function through their ecosystem engineering activity, most notably the building of dams. This can have a major impact upon water resource management, flow regimes and water quality. Previous research has predominantly focused on the activities of North American beaver (Castor canadensis) located in very different environments, to the intensive lowland agricultural landscapes of the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe. Two Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were introduced to a wooded site, situated on a first order tributary, draining from intensively managed grassland. The site was monitored to understand impacts upon water storage, flow regimes and water quality. Results indicated that beaver activity, primarily via the creation of 13 dams, has increased water storage within the site (holding ca. 1000m(3) in beaver ponds) and beavers were likely to have had a significant flow attenuation impact, as determined from peak discharges (mean 30±19% reduction), total discharges (mean 34±9% reduction) and peak rainfall to peak discharge lag times (mean 29±21% increase) during storm events. Event monitoring of water entering and leaving the site showed lower concentrations of suspended sediment, nitrogen and phosphate leaving the site (e.g. for suspended sediment; average entering site: 112±72mgl(-1), average leaving site: 39±37mgl(-1)). Combined with attenuated flows, this resulted in lower diffuse pollutant loads in water downstream. Conversely, dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loads downstream were higher. These observed changes are argued to be directly attributable to beaver activity at the site which has created a diverse wetland environment, reducing downstream hydrological connectivity. Results have important implications for beaver reintroduction programs which may provide nature based solutions to the catchment-scale water resource management issues that are faced in agricultural landscapes.

Concepts: Hydrology, Beaver, European Beaver, Beavers, Castoreum, Fur trade, North American Beaver, Keystone species

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Isotretinoin, a teratogen, is widely used to treat cystic acne. Although the risks of pregnancy during isotretinoin therapy are well recognized, there are doubts about the level of adherence with the pregnancy prevention program in Canada. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Canadian pregnancy prevention program in 4 provinces: British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario.

Concepts: Provinces and territories of Canada, Canada, Northwest Territories, First Nations, Isotretinoin, Canadian Pacific Railway, Canadian National Railway, Fur trade

6

In recent decades, many smaller hospitals in British Columbia, Canada, have stopped providing planned obstetric services. We examined the effect of these service closures on the labour and delivery outcomes of pregnant women living in affected communities.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Uterus, Obstetrics, Provinces and territories of Canada, Canada, British Columbia, Fur trade

4

Beavers (Castor canadensis) can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus) in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58%) kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80%) kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1) waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails) until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2) using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3) immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

Concepts: Predation, Hunting, Beaver, Dog, Gray Wolf, Fur trade, North American Beaver, London School of Economics

3

Since August 2014, an increase in infections caused by enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was reported in the USA and Canada, for the most part in children presenting with severe respiratory symptoms.

Concepts: Disease, United States, English language, Canada, German language, Basketball, Lacrosse, Fur trade

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Reports of outbreaks in Canada and the United States (U.S.) indicate that approximately 50% of all waterborne diseases occur in small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs). Summarizing these investigations to identify the factors and conditions contributing to outbreaks is needed in order to help prevent future outbreaks.

Concepts: Water, United States, German language, Drinking water, Waterborne diseases, Ice hockey, Water treatment, Fur trade

0

A total of 58 American beavers ( Castor canadensis) was immobilized with butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) for the purpose of health assessments, sex determination, and placement of very high-frequency tail transmitters in a subset of animals. Isoflurane gas anesthesia was available to aid with induction when needed, and all animals received supplementary oxygen. Thirty-one beavers immobilized with a mean (SD) dose of 0.65 (0.15) mg/kg butorphanol, 0.22 (0.05) mg/kg azaperone, and 0.26 (0.06) mg/kg medetomidine did not require supplemental isoflurane during induction and the mean induction time was 8 min (range: 3-21 min). This dose was equivalent to 0.024 (0.005) mL of BAM per kilogram. A total of 29 beavers that was immobilized with a mean (SD) of 0.51 (0.07) mg/kg butorphanol, 0.17 (0.02) mg/kg azaperone, and 0.2 (0.03) mg/kg medetomidine needed supplementary isoflurane at 5% and 5 L/min for <1 min to induce full anesthesia. In none of the beavers did BAM alone provide sufficient depth of anesthesia to drill a hole in the tail for transmitter placement, and supplementary isoflurane was administered to reach a sufficient level of analgesia for the procedure. The beavers were reversed with 5 mg of atipamezole per milligram of medetomidine and 1 mg of naltrexone per milligram of butorphanol. No adverse effects or mortalities were observed. Butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine can be considered safe for use in American beavers for minor procedures.

Concepts: Opioid, Natural number, Beaver, Transmitter, Beavers, Fur trade, North American Beaver, Medetomidine

0

During 2002-15 we examined the causes of mortality in a population of northern sea otters ( Enhydra lutris kenyoni). Beachcast sea otters were collected primarily from the coast of Washington. Although there are no permanent sea otter residents in Oregon, several beachcast otters were collected from the Oregon coast. Infectious diseases were the primary cause of death (56%) for otters we examined. Sarcocystosis was the leading infectious cause of death (54%) and was observed throughout the study period. Some infectious diseases, such as morbilliviral encephalitis and leptospirosis, were documented for a limited number of years and then not detected again despite continued testing for these pathogens in necropsied animals. Trauma was the second most common cause of death (14%) during the study period. The continued stable growth of the Washington population of otters suggests they are able to tolerate current mortality rates.

Concepts: Demography, Otters, Mustelidae, Washington, Oregon Coast, Sea otter, Otter, Fur trade

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This study assessed management of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer from rural, small and large local health authorities (LHA) in British Columbia (BC), Canada.

Concepts: Cancer, Cancer staging, Colon, Provinces and territories of Canada, Canada, British Columbia, Vancouver, Fur trade

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Comparing sea otter recovery in California (CA) and British Columbia (BC) reveals key ecosystem properties that shape top-down effects in seagrass communities. We review potential ecosystem drivers of sea otter foraging in CA and BC seagrass beds, including the role of coastline complexity and environmental stress on sea otter effects. In BC, we find greater species richness across seagrass trophic assemblages. Furthermore, Cancer spp. crabs, an important link in the seagrass trophic cascade observed in CA, are less common. Additionally, the more recent reintroduction of sea otters, more complex coastline, and reduced environmental stress in BC seagrass habitats supports the hypotheses that sea otter foraging pressure is currently reduced there. In order to manage the ecosystem features that lead to regional differences in top predator effects in seagrass communities, we review our findings, their spatial and temporal constraints, and present a social-ecological framework for future research.

Concepts: Food chain, Apex predator, Otters, Mustelidae, Washington, Sea otter, Otter, Fur trade