SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

28

BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated the bitter taste receptor T2R38 upregulates sinonasal mucosal innate defense in response to gram-negative quorum-sensing molecules through increased nitric oxide production and mucociliary clearance. T2R38 was initially identified in the quest to understand the variability in bitter taste perception to the compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and demonstrated to have polymorphisms generating diplotypes dividing people into PTC supertasters, heterozygotes (with variable PTC detection), and nontasters. We have further demonstrated that sinonasal epithelial cultures derived from supertasters significantly increase innate defenses in response to gram-negative quorum-sensing molecules compared with sinonasal cultures derived from heterozygotes and nontaster individuals. Based on this data, we hypothesize that supertasters are less likely to require sinus surgery compared with heterozygous or nontasters and that supertasters have improved surgical outcomes. METHODS: Banked sinonasal tissue samples from patients who had undergone primary functional endoscopic sinus surgery at the University of Pennsylvania or the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center were genotyped for T2R38 and compared to the expected population distribution. Necessity for additional antibiotic therapy following the postoperative healing time frame was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were included in the study. Only 1 supertaster was identified (expected 5.6, p < 0.043). Additionally, 14 heterozygous and 13 nontaster patients were identified. CONCLUSION: This pilot study investigating the genetics of the bitter taste receptor T2R38 in the context of primary sinonasal surgery demonstrates supertaster patients are less likely to need surgical intervention for chronic rhinosinusitis. Additional study is necessary to ascertain postsurgical outcomes.

Concepts: Surgery, Sinusitis, Taste, Nitric oxide, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Supertaster, Phenylthiocarbamide, TAS2R38

27

Balloon dilation technology (BDT), also known as balloon sinuplasty, has been in clinical use since September, 2005. Prior to BDT, surgeons performed a procedure called FESS, or functional endoscopic sinus surgery, for patients with chronic sinusitis. As is true with any new technology or procedure in medicine, a debate often ensues between early adopters and mainstream practitioners. Over the past 7 years, much has been discussed, debated, and learned about BDT. What follows is a review of the origins of the BDT: the theory, technology, indications and applications; and a review of the pertinent outcomes literature. Independent of how one feels about BDT, the evidence strongly supports its safety, efficacy, and growing popularity among patients and physicians alike.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Surgery, Sinusitis, Physician, Otolaryngology, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Rhinology

26

Antrochoanal polyp is a benign polypoid lesion orginating from the maxillary sinus antrum and extending to the choana. Our aim was to assess the clinical presentation and associated rhinological findings of antrochoanal polyp patients and to evaluate results of 2 surgical treatments termed endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and ESS plus mini-Caldwell operation. The study included 46 patients. Factors such as patient age, sex, history of chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, septal deviations, chonca bullosa, turbinate hypertrophy, and the origin of the polyp were assessed. We also evaluated ESS and ESS plus mini-Caldwell surgical procedures for recurrences, synechia, bleeding, and ostium stenosis. Overall, there were 27 men and 19 women. The ESS approach was used in 26 cases, and 20 cases had combined ESS and mini-Caldwell procedures. The statistical significant difference between the 2 groups was only recurrence (P ≤ 0.05). In the ESS group, bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis were seen more than in the ESS + mini-Caldwell group, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis (P > 0.05). We thought that lower rate of recurrence found in ESS + Caldwell group in this study was associated with better visualization of the maxillary sinus walls and, therefore, easier resection of the remnant polyp. We concluded that higher incidences of bleeding and synechia were related to the mucosal damage occurring in the septum and the inferior concha due to excessive manipulation of endoscope and surgical instruments.

Concepts: Surgery, Sinusitis, Allergy, Maxillary sinus, Rhinitis, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Concha bullosa, Inferior nasal concha

3

This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a mometasone steroid-eluting sinus implant compared to a nonsteroid-eluting sinus implant following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

1

Although functional endoscopic sinus surgery is an effective means of treating patients with recurrent and refractory sinusitis, the procedure is not without risk of serious surgical complications. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) affords radiologists the opportunity to prospectively identify anatomic variants that predispose patients to major surgical complications; however, these critical variants are not consistently evaluated or documented on preoperative imaging reports. The purpose of this review is to illustrate important anatomic variants and landmarks on the preoperative sinus CT with a focus on those that predispose patients to surgical complications. These critical variants and landmarks can be quickly recalled and incorporated into the preoperative imaging report through the use of the mnemonic “CLOSE”: Cribriform plate, Lamina papyracea, Onodi cell, Sphenoid sinus pneumatization, and (anterior) Ethmoidal artery. This approach will greatly enhance the value of the preoperative imaging report for referring otolaryngologists and help reduce the risk of surgical complications. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Sinusitis, Medical imaging, Physician, Radiology, Otolaryngology, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

1

Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) often have comorbid asthma. Prior studies have not examined the impact of CRS or endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) upon asthma quality-of-life (QOL) and asthma control using validated outcome metrics.

Concepts: Asthma, Life, Sinusitis, Allergy, Quality, Quality of life, Rhinitis, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

0

We present two 11-year-old girls with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, treated with adalimumab. Both developed severe intracranial complications to sinusitis. Patient 1 had been treated with adalimumab for 15 months when she developed acute sinusitis complicated by an orbital abscess, forehead swelling, a subdural empyema and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. She was treated with a rhinosurgical and neurosurgical approach with intravenous antibiotics.Patient 2 had been in adalimumab treatment for 10 weeks. Adalimumab was discontinued 8 weeks prior to developing subdural empyema and subcortical abscesses in combination with sinusitis. She was treated with endoscopic sinus surgery and intravenous antibiotics. Both patients had developed psoriasis and episodes of infection during treatment. They were non-septic and had low fever on presentation. None of the patients suffered any long-term neurological sequelae. The immunosuppressive treatment with adalimumab is considered to be the cause of the sinogenic intracranial complications in our cases.

Concepts: Inflammation, Staphylococcus aureus, Antibiotic resistance, Sinusitis, Skull, Haemophilus influenzae, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Empyema

0

Multiple cultures are commonly obtained from different sinuses where purulence is encountered during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). This brings into question the utility and necessity of obtaining multiple cultures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if multiple cultures obtained during a single case is informative in finding additional pathogens or if it is a redundant, cost-increasing practice. We hypothesized that multiple sinus cultures are necessary to identify the pathogens responsible for an individual’s sinus disease. We seek to add information on the utility of performing multiple sinus cultures from a patient care and a health economics standpoint.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Health insurance, Hospital, Sinusitis, Economics, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

0

Endoscopic Polypectomy In Clinic (EPIC) is a recently described deescalated form of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) performed in the outpatient clinic for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps (CRSwNP). The quality of life benefit of EPIC in comparison to ESS is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine if the disease specific quality of life measured with the SNOT-22 attained with EPIC is similar to that attained with ESS for patients with CRSwNP.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Hospital, Sinusitis, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

0

Chronic nasal dysfunction is a clinical concept in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of sinonasal diseases, based on the evo-devo theory of formation of the nose according to which the nose is not a single organ but rather an association of three organs: olfactory nose, respiratory nose and paranasal sinuses. In chronic nasal dysfunction theory, etiological diagnosis takes account of the possible pathophysiological independence of nasal symptoms, in accordance with the different origins and physiology of the three organs constituting the nose. The diagnostic approach of the chronic nasal dysfunction concept breaks down the pathology so as to propose treatment(s) adapted to the diseased organ(s) and to the capacity for physiological resolution of dysfunction induced in one organ by pathology in a neighboring nasal organ. The ethmoid is not a sinus according to evo-devo, and therefore functional endoscopic endonasal surgery (FEES) cannot be restricted to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Evo-devo theory and the chronic nasal dysfunction concept offer an alternative to the concept of chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps for the management of sinonasal diseases.

Concepts: Medicine, Biology, Medical terms, Heart, Sinusitis, Anatomy, Human anatomy, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery