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Concept: Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery


BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated the bitter taste receptor T2R38 upregulates sinonasal mucosal innate defense in response to gram-negative quorum-sensing molecules through increased nitric oxide production and mucociliary clearance. T2R38 was initially identified in the quest to understand the variability in bitter taste perception to the compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and demonstrated to have polymorphisms generating diplotypes dividing people into PTC supertasters, heterozygotes (with variable PTC detection), and nontasters. We have further demonstrated that sinonasal epithelial cultures derived from supertasters significantly increase innate defenses in response to gram-negative quorum-sensing molecules compared with sinonasal cultures derived from heterozygotes and nontaster individuals. Based on this data, we hypothesize that supertasters are less likely to require sinus surgery compared with heterozygous or nontasters and that supertasters have improved surgical outcomes. METHODS: Banked sinonasal tissue samples from patients who had undergone primary functional endoscopic sinus surgery at the University of Pennsylvania or the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center were genotyped for T2R38 and compared to the expected population distribution. Necessity for additional antibiotic therapy following the postoperative healing time frame was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were included in the study. Only 1 supertaster was identified (expected 5.6, p < 0.043). Additionally, 14 heterozygous and 13 nontaster patients were identified. CONCLUSION: This pilot study investigating the genetics of the bitter taste receptor T2R38 in the context of primary sinonasal surgery demonstrates supertaster patients are less likely to need surgical intervention for chronic rhinosinusitis. Additional study is necessary to ascertain postsurgical outcomes.

Concepts: Surgery, Sinusitis, Taste, Nitric oxide, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Supertaster, Phenylthiocarbamide, TAS2R38


Balloon dilation technology (BDT), also known as balloon sinuplasty, has been in clinical use since September, 2005. Prior to BDT, surgeons performed a procedure called FESS, or functional endoscopic sinus surgery, for patients with chronic sinusitis. As is true with any new technology or procedure in medicine, a debate often ensues between early adopters and mainstream practitioners. Over the past 7 years, much has been discussed, debated, and learned about BDT. What follows is a review of the origins of the BDT: the theory, technology, indications and applications; and a review of the pertinent outcomes literature. Independent of how one feels about BDT, the evidence strongly supports its safety, efficacy, and growing popularity among patients and physicians alike.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Surgery, Sinusitis, Physician, Otolaryngology, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Rhinology


Antrochoanal polyp is a benign polypoid lesion orginating from the maxillary sinus antrum and extending to the choana. Our aim was to assess the clinical presentation and associated rhinological findings of antrochoanal polyp patients and to evaluate results of 2 surgical treatments termed endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and ESS plus mini-Caldwell operation. The study included 46 patients. Factors such as patient age, sex, history of chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, septal deviations, chonca bullosa, turbinate hypertrophy, and the origin of the polyp were assessed. We also evaluated ESS and ESS plus mini-Caldwell surgical procedures for recurrences, synechia, bleeding, and ostium stenosis. Overall, there were 27 men and 19 women. The ESS approach was used in 26 cases, and 20 cases had combined ESS and mini-Caldwell procedures. The statistical significant difference between the 2 groups was only recurrence (P ≤ 0.05). In the ESS group, bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis were seen more than in the ESS + mini-Caldwell group, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis (P > 0.05). We thought that lower rate of recurrence found in ESS + Caldwell group in this study was associated with better visualization of the maxillary sinus walls and, therefore, easier resection of the remnant polyp. We concluded that higher incidences of bleeding and synechia were related to the mucosal damage occurring in the septum and the inferior concha due to excessive manipulation of endoscope and surgical instruments.

Concepts: Surgery, Sinusitis, Allergy, Maxillary sinus, Rhinitis, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Concha bullosa, Inferior nasal concha


This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a mometasone steroid-eluting sinus implant compared to a nonsteroid-eluting sinus implant following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery


Although functional endoscopic sinus surgery is an effective means of treating patients with recurrent and refractory sinusitis, the procedure is not without risk of serious surgical complications. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) affords radiologists the opportunity to prospectively identify anatomic variants that predispose patients to major surgical complications; however, these critical variants are not consistently evaluated or documented on preoperative imaging reports. The purpose of this review is to illustrate important anatomic variants and landmarks on the preoperative sinus CT with a focus on those that predispose patients to surgical complications. These critical variants and landmarks can be quickly recalled and incorporated into the preoperative imaging report through the use of the mnemonic “CLOSE”: Cribriform plate, Lamina papyracea, Onodi cell, Sphenoid sinus pneumatization, and (anterior) Ethmoidal artery. This approach will greatly enhance the value of the preoperative imaging report for referring otolaryngologists and help reduce the risk of surgical complications. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Sinusitis, Medical imaging, Physician, Radiology, Otolaryngology, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery


Patients undergoing revision functional endoscopic sinus surgery (rFESS) for refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are more likely to be older, have worse pre-operative Lund-Mackay CT scores, and poorer quality-of-life scores than primary FESS patients. Patients with more aggressive forms of CRS such as CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) or allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) may fare worse in the long term with residual disease and be more likely to seek out tertiary institutions for treatment including rFESS. Computed tomography (CT) findings most frequently associated with failure of primary FESS were frontal sinus/recess residual bony partitions (91.8%), remnant ethmoid sinus shelves (88.2%) and unopened pneumatized ethmoid cells (77.7%). Patients with a diagnosis of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) who required rFESS presented with significantly fewer frontal sinus residual bony partitions, residual uncinate process, and ethmoid sinus residual unopened pneumatized cells, than non-AFRS patients, suggesting that intrinsic biological factors were the major contributors to failure of primary FESS. The factors associated with rFESS are numerous and should be explored further. Other factors that may be important to consider when assessing causes of primary FESS failure may include surgeon skill level as well as the availability of proper instrumentation and support staff in the setting in which the procedure is performed (e.g. tertiary vs community level hospital). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Surgery, Sinusitis, Allergy, Copyright, Otolaryngology, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Bones of the head and neck, Ethmoid sinus


Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) often have comorbid asthma. Prior studies have not examined the impact of CRS or endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) upon asthma quality-of-life (QOL) and asthma control using validated outcome metrics.

Concepts: Asthma, Life, Sinusitis, Allergy, Quality, Quality of life, Rhinitis, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery


Pott’s puffy tumour (PPT) is characterised by a subperiosteal abscess associated with osteomyelitis of the frontal bone-a rare complication of frontal sinusitis, more common in the paediatric population. We describe a case mimicking PPT, where abscess extension was facilitated by previous surgery. Usually patients with PPT would be systemically unwell, but our patient, a 63-year-old Caucasian man, was systemically well with a large swelling of his forehead. A CT was performed to evaluate possible intracranial and intracerebral complications such as epidural, subdural and brain abscesses. Emergent surgical drainage was performed with prolonged administration of antibiotic therapy. 12 weeks later, he had recollection in the frontal sinus requiring incision and drainage. 6 weeks afterwards, he underwent planned Lothrop procedure and endoscopic sinus surgery. Although clinically the patient presented with overwhelming features of PPT, we emphasise that PPT involves osteomyelitis of frontal bone, which is absent in our case.

Concepts: Medicine, Patient, Staphylococcus aureus, Physician, Skull, Abscess, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Brain abscess


This study aimed to analyse findings of functional endoscopic sinus surgery to estimate the post-operative course of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Otolaryngology, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery


To present 6 cases of orbital trauma diplopia and strabismus after functional endoscopic sinus surgeries (FESS).

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Diplopia, Binocular vision, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery