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Concept: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration

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Elevated expression of specific transposable elements (TEs) has been observed in several neurodegenerative disorders. TEs also can be active during normal neurogenesis. By mining a series of deep sequencing datasets of protein-RNA interactions and of gene expression profiles, we uncovered extensive binding of TE transcripts to TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein central to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we find that association between TDP-43 and many of its TE targets is reduced in FTLD patients. Third, we discovered that a large fraction of the TEs to which TDP-43 binds become de-repressed in mouse TDP-43 disease models. We propose the hypothesis that TE mis-regulation contributes to TDP-43 related neurodegenerative diseases.

Concepts: Gene, Evolution, Molecular biology, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Neurodegenerative disorders, Frontotemporal dementia, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Although novel ALS genetic variants have been identified, the shared genetic risk between ALS and other neurodegenerative disorders remains poorly understood.

Concepts: Neurology, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Neurodegeneration, Neurodegenerative disorders, Frontotemporal dementia, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Stephen Hawking

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Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) is one of the most common pathological findings associated with the clinical FTLD syndromes. However, molecular characterization with genetic sequencing and protein expression techniques are recognizing many new subtypes for FTLDs. FTLDs are diverse and new nomenclature schemes have been proposed based on the molecular defects that are being discovered ( Mackenzie et al., 2010 , Acta Neuropathologica, 119, 1). Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) is a very rare disorder associated with systemic neurological signs and symptoms including progressive dementia with executive dysfunction and motor neuron disease. We report the clinical course of an individual with a clinical FTLD and the as yet unreported findings of coexistent APBD with FTLD-U and transactivation response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43)-positive inclusions at autopsy (or more accurately, FTLD-TDP). It is unclear if these distinct findings are coincidental in this individual, or if pathogenic pathways may intersect to promote these coexisting pathologies.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Pathology, Anatomical pathology, Symptom, Dementia, Frontotemporal dementia, Motor neuron, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration

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Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget’s disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia is a rare but highly penetrant autosomal dominant progressive disorder linked to mutations in valosin containing protein (VCP). Here, we characterize a novel mutation in the linker 1 domain of VCP leading to inclusion body myopathy and/or frontotemporal dementia in 3 generations of a Swiss family. A detailed history of several years of clinical follow-up and electrophysiological, radiological and pathological findings are presented. Five out of 6 individuals suffered from progressive myopathy and 2 out of 6 from frontotemporal dementia, respectively. A radiologically suspected Paget’s disease of the bone could not been confirmed at autopsy. This case study illustrates that only a subset of individuals shows the full triad of the disease complex and that clinicopathological findings are - when interpreted apart from familial history - hard to distinguish from sporadic inclusion body myositis.

Concepts: Cancer, Diseases and disorders, Death, Prion, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Inclusion body myositis, Myopathy, Hereditary inclusion body myopathy

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Over 30% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibit cognitive deficits indicative of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), suggesting a common pathogenesis for both diseases. Consistent with this hypothesis, neuronal and glial inclusions rich in TDP43, an essential RNA-binding protein, are found in the majority of those with ALS and FTD, and mutations in TDP43 and a related RNA-binding protein, FUS, cause familial ALS and FTD. TDP43 and FUS affect the splicing of thousands of transcripts, in some cases triggering nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), a highly conserved RNA degradation pathway. Here, we take advantage of a faithful primary neuronal model of ALS and FTD to investigate and characterize the role of human up-frameshift protein 1 (hUPF1), an RNA helicase and master regulator of NMD, in these disorders. We show that hUPF1 significantly protects mammalian neurons from both TDP43- and FUS-related toxicity. Expression of hUPF2, another essential component of NMD, also improves survival, whereas inhibiting NMD prevents rescue by hUPF1, suggesting that hUPF1 acts through NMD to enhance survival. These studies emphasize the importance of RNA metabolism in ALS and FTD, and identify a uniquely effective therapeutic strategy for these disorders.

Concepts: DNA, Transcription, RNA, Messenger RNA, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Frontotemporal dementia, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, FUS

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Purpose To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of an image-based classifier to distinguish between Alzheimer disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in individual patients by using gray matter (GM) density maps computed from standard T1-weighted structural images obtained with multiple imagers and with independent training and prediction data. Materials and Methods The local institutional review board approved the study. Eighty-four patients with AD, 51 patients with bvFTD, and 94 control subjects were divided into independent training (n = 115) and prediction (n = 114) sets with identical diagnosis and imager type distributions. Training of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier used diagnostic status and GM density maps and produced voxelwise discrimination maps. Discriminant function analysis was used to estimate suitability of the extracted weights for single-subject classification in the prediction set. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated for image-based classifiers and neuropsychological z scores. Results Training accuracy of the SVM was 85% for patients with AD versus control subjects, 72% for patients with bvFTD versus control subjects, and 79% for patients with AD versus patients with bvFTD (P ≤ .029). Single-subject diagnosis in the prediction set when using the discrimination maps yielded accuracies of 88% for patients with AD versus control subjects, 85% for patients with bvFTD versus control subjects, and 82% for patients with AD versus patients with bvFTD, with a good to excellent AUC (range, 0.81-0.95; P ≤ .001). Machine learning-based categorization of AD versus bvFTD based on GM density maps outperforms classification based on neuropsychological test results. Conclusion The SVM can be used in single-subject discrimination and can help the clinician arrive at a diagnosis. The SVM can be used to distinguish disease-specific GM patterns in patients with AD and those with bvFTD as compared with normal aging by using common T1-weighted structural MR imaging. (©) RSNA, 2015.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Neurology, Dementia, Receiver operating characteristic, Binary classification, Statistical classification, Support vector machine, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration

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Misidentification delusions (MDs) are considered relatively rare psychopathologic phenomena that may occur within the context of psychiatric or neurological conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of MD in different types of dementia, correlate the presence of MD with demographic and clinical variables, and validate a specific questionnaire. We examined 146 subjects with Alzheimer disease, 21 with Lewy body dementia, 6 with frontotemporal dementia, and 13 with vascular dementia (subcortical type), who were consecutively enrolled in the study from 2 Memory Clinics. Patients had a mean age of 78.7±6.4 years and an Mini-Mental State Examination average score of 16.9±6.1. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory delusion subscale and a new Misidentification Delusion Questionnaire aimed at specific assessment of 11 delusional misidentification syndromes were administrated to the caregivers. On the basis of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, MDs were present in 33.3% of the subjects, whereas according to the Misidentification Delusion Questionnaire they were present in 36.0% of the subjects. Specifically, 34.2% of Alzheimer disease, 52.4% of Lewy body dementia, and 46.1% of vascular dementia patients experienced at least 1 MD. None of the patients with frontotemporal dementia developed MD. The most frequent MD was house misidentification, followed by splitting of people and reduplicative paramnesia. Our self-administered questionnaire proved to be an accurate and specific tool for the detection of MD.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Neurology, Parkinson's disease, Dementia, Psychiatry, Lewy body, Delusional misidentification syndrome, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration

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The terms frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) indicate a large set of neurodegenerative diseases, heterogeneous in their genetic, pathologic and clinical aspects.

Concepts: Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration, Neurodegenerative disorders, Frontotemporal dementia, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Neurodegenerative diseases

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Neuronal inclusions of aggregated RNA-binding protein fused in sarcoma (FUS) are hallmarks of ALS and frontotemporal dementia subtypes. Intriguingly, FUS’s nearly uncharged, aggregation-prone, yeast prion-like, low sequence-complexity domain (LC) is known to be targeted for phosphorylation. Here we map in vitro and in-cell phosphorylation sites across FUS LC We show that both phosphorylation and phosphomimetic variants reduce its aggregation-prone/prion-like character, disrupting FUS phase separation in the presence of RNA or salt and reducing FUS propensity to aggregate. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates the intrinsically disordered structure of FUS LC is preserved after phosphorylation; however, transient domain collapse and self-interaction are reduced by phosphomimetics. Moreover, we show that phosphomimetic FUS reduces aggregation in human and yeast cell models, and can ameliorate FUS-associated cytotoxicity. Hence, post-translational modification may be a mechanism by which cells control physiological assembly and prevent pathological protein aggregation, suggesting a potential treatment pathway amenable to pharmacologic modulation.

Concepts: Protein, Cell nucleus, Bacteria, Enzyme, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Phosphorylation, In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration

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TDP-43 pathology marks a spectrum of multisystem proteinopathies including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and sporadic inclusion body myositis. Surprisingly, it has been challenging to recapitulate this pathology, highlighting an incomplete understanding of TDP-43 regulatory mechanisms. Here we provide evidence supporting TDP-43 acetylation as a trigger for disease pathology. Using cultured cells and mouse skeletal muscle, we show that TDP-43 acetylation-mimics promote TDP-43 phosphorylation and ubiquitination, perturb mitochondria, and initiate degenerative inflammatory responses that resemble sporadic inclusion body myositis pathology. Analysis of functionally linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis proteins revealed recruitment of p62, ubiquilin-2, and optineurin to TDP-43 aggregates. We demonstrate that TDP-43 acetylation-mimic pathology is potently suppressed by an HSF1-dependent mechanism that disaggregates TDP-43. Our study illustrates bidirectional TDP-43 processing in which TDP-43 aggregation is targeted by a coordinated chaperone response. Thus, activation or restoration of refolding mechanisms may alleviate TDP-43 aggregation in tissues that are uniquely susceptible to TDP-43 proteinopathies.TDP-43 aggregation is linked to various diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here the authors show that acetylation of the protein triggers TDP-43 pathology in cultured cells and mouse skeletal muscle, which can be cleared through an HSF1-dependent chaperone mechanism that disaggregates the protein.

Concepts: Inflammation, Proteins, Protein, Protein folding, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Frontotemporal dementia, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Inclusion body myositis